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Monday, October 21, 2019

NEW YORK FREEDOM RIDER NEWS- 10/17/19 firearms related updates

CALIFORNIA- law, update

AB12 [law]: Firearms: gun violence restraining orders

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 724, Statutes of 2019.

AB61 [law]: Gun violence restraining orders

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 725, Statutes of 2019.

AB164 [law]: Firearms: prohibited persons

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 726, Statutes of 2019.

AB339 [law]: Gun violence restraining orders: law enforcement procedures

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 727, Statutes of 2019.

AB879 [law]: Firearms

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 730, Statutes of 2019.

AB893: 22nd District Agricultural Association: firearm and ammunition sales at the Del Mar Fairgrounds

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 731, Statutes of 2019.

AB1297 [law]: Firearms: concealed carry license

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 732, Statutes of 2019.

AB1493 [law]: Gun violence restraining order: petition.

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 733, Statutes of 2019.

AB1669 [law]: Firearms: gun shows and events

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State - Chapter 736, Statutes of 2019.

SB61 [law]: Firearms: transfers

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State. Chapter 737, Statutes of 2019.

SB172 [law]: Firearms

10/12/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State. Chapter 840, Statutes of 2019.

SB376 [law]: Firearms: transfers

10/11/19: Approved by Governor. Chaptered by Secretary of State. Chapter 738, Statutes of 2019.

AB340 [update]: Firearms: armed prohibited persons.

10/12/19: Vetoed by Governor.

Governor’s veto message:
To the Members of California State Assembly:

I am returning Assembly Bill 340 without my signature.
This bill would set forth reporting requirements for the Gun Violence Reduction Pilot Program. This pilot program was only recently funded in the 2019-2020 State Budget. Additional guidance related to the implementation of that program is premature at this time.

Gavin Newsom


FLORIDA- new, updates

HB353 [new]: Weapons and Firearms; Provides that petition for involuntary examination serves as petition for risk protection order in certain circumstances and provides for confiscation of firearms & ammunition; requires minimum mandatory term of imprisonment for person convicted of felony while owning or having in his or her care, custody, possession, or control firearm, ammunition, or electronic weapon or device.

10/15/2019: Filed

SB548 [new]: Firearms; Requiring the Department of Law Enforcement to include on a standard form certain questions concerning a potential firearm buyer’s or transferee’s criminal history and other information relating to the person’s eligibility to make the firearm purchase; requiring the department to notify certain law enforcement agencies when a potential sale or transfer receives a nonapproval number; prohibiting the sale or transfer, or facilitation of a sale or transfer, of a firearm to a person younger than a certain age by any person or entity, etc.

10/17/2019: Filed

Bill text: Filed

SB558 [new]: Large-capacity Magazines; Defining the term “large-capacity magazine”; prohibiting the sale, transfer, or possession of large-capacity magazines; providing criminal penalties; providing exceptions, etc.

10/17/2019: Filed

HB245 [update]: Concealed Weapons and Firearms; Prohibits concealed weapon or firearm licensee from openly carrying handgun or carrying concealed weapon or firearm into any child care facility.

10/10/2019: Referred to Criminal Justice Subcommittee; Children, Families and Seniors Subcommittee; Judiciary Committee

HB289 [update]: Sales of Ammunition; requires background checks for sale or transfer of ammunition.

10/16/2019: Referred to Criminal Justice Subcommittee; Justice Appropriations Subcommittee; Judiciary Committee

HB291/SB462 [update]: Pub. Rec./Sales of Ammunition; Provides exemption from public records requirements for records containing certain information pertaining to buyer or transferee who is not found to be prohibited from receipt or transfer of ammunition; provides for future legislative review & repeal of exemption; provides statement of public necessity.

10/16/2019: Referred to Criminal Justice Subcommittee; Oversight, Transparency and Public Management Subcommittee; Judiciary Committee
10/15/2019: Referred to Infrastructure and Security; Governmental Oversight and Accountability; Rules

SB266 [update]: Safe Storage of Loaded Firearms; Revising the locations and circumstances in which a loaded firearm is required to be kept or secured with a trigger lock; deleting conditions that pertain to the crime of failing to safely store, leave, or secure a loaded firearm in a specified manner, etc.

10/15/2019:  Referred to Infrastructure and Security; Criminal Justice; Rules

SB270 [update]: Sale and Delivery of Firearms; Requiring the parties, if neither party to a sale, lease, or transfer of a firearm is a licensed dealer, to complete the sale, lease, or transfer through a licensed dealer; authorizing a licensed dealer to charge a buyer or transferee specified fees; deleting provisions authorizing a licensee to complete the sale or transfer of a firearm to a person without receiving certain notification from the Department of Law Enforcement informing the licensee that such person is prohibited from receipt or possession of a firearm or providing a unique approval number under certain circumstances, etc.

10/15/2019: Referred to Infrastructure and Security; Judiciary; Rules

HB273: Carrying of Firearms; Removes requirement that license to carry concealed firearm is required in order to carry such firearm; limits areas in which concealed carrying of firearm is prohibited; revises criminal penalties; revises provisions relating to carrying of concealed weapons by nonresidents; provides for issuance of concealed carry licenses for reciprocity purposes; specifies that person not otherwise prohibited by law from possessing firearm may own, possess, & lawfully use firearms & other weapons, ammunition, & supplies for lawful purposes.

10/14/2019: Referred to Criminal Justice Subcommittee; Agriculture and Natural Resources Appropriations Subcommittee; Judiciary Committee

SB310 [update]: Three-dimensional Printed Firearms; Prohibiting a person from printing, transferring, importing into this state, distributing, selling, possessing, or giving to another person certain 3D-printed firearms as of a specified date; providing criminal penalties; requiring persons in possession of such firearms to relinquish them to a law enforcement agency or to the Department of Law Enforcement or to destroy them before the prohibition takes effect, etc.

10/15/2019 Senate - Referred to Infrastructure and Security; Judiciary; Rules

SB428 [update]: Prohibited Places for Weapons and Firearms; Revising the locations where a concealed weapons or concealed firearms licensee is prohibited from openly carrying a handgun or carrying a concealed weapon or firearm, etc.

10/15/2019: Referred to Infrastructure and Security; Judiciary; Rules

SB460 [update]: Sales of Ammunition; Citing this act as “Jaime’s Law”; requiring background checks for the sale or transfer of ammunition; providing exceptions, etc.

10/15/2019: Referred to Infrastructure and Security; Judiciary; Rules



HB5098: Weapons; licensing; fee for renewal of concealed pistol license; waive. Amends sec. 5l of 1927 PA 372 (MCL 28.425l).

10/15/2019: Introduced, read first time. Referred to Committee on Military, Veterans and Homeland Security

HB5116: Criminal procedure; expunction; eligibility for concealed pistol license after setting aside certain convictions; clarify. Amends 1927 PA 372 (MCL 28.421 - 28.435) by adding sec. 2c. TIE BAR WITH: HB 5020'19

10/16/2019: Introduced, read first time. Referred to Committee on Judiciary


OHIO- new

SB221: Revised Code to provide for the issuance in specified circumstances of a Safety Protection Order to apply regarding a person who a court determines is under a drug dependency, chronic alcoholic, or mental health-related firearms disability; to specify LEADS and NCIC reporting and removal procedures for current types of protection orders; to require the submission to the Attorney General for inclusion in LEADS of findings of IST or NGRI; to modify some of the prohibitions under the offense of "unlawful transactions in weapons" and add new prohibitions and exemptions under the offense, including a new exemption if a state background check mechanism the bill enacts is used and does not indicate that the prospective transferee is barred from firearms possession; to provide in specified circumstances for the issuance of a seller's protection certificate under the new state background check mechanism; to increase the penalty for certain firearms-related offenses in specified circumstances; to modify the law governing the entry of arrest warrants into LEADS as extradition warrants; to expand the law regarding the provision of drug and alcohol test results to law enforcement personnel; and to provide a new exception to the testimonial privilege for specified medical and dental personnel regarding certain probate court proceedings.

10/15/19: Introduced

SB223: Revised Code to generally prohibit a person from possessing trigger cranks, bump-fire devices, or other items that accelerate a semi-automatic firearm's rate of fire but do not convert it into an automatic firearm and large capacity magazines.

10/16/19: Introduced


New York Freedom Rider
Freedom is not a spectator’s sport

Sunday, October 20, 2019


THE AIM/NCOM MOTORCYCLE E-NEWS SERVICE is brought to you by Aid to Injured Motorcyclists (A.I.M.) and the National Coalition of Motorcyclists (NCOM), and is sponsored by the Law Offices of Richard M. Lester. If you’ve been involved in any kind of accident, call us at 1-(800) ON-A-BIKE or visit
Compiled & Edited by Bill Bish,
National Coalition of Motorcyclists (NCOM)
The “Recognizing the Protection of Motorsports (RPM) Act”, S. 2602, was reintroduced in the 116th Congress on October 18, 2019 by Senators Richard Burr (R-NC) and Joe Manchin (D-WV) along with 24 original cosponsors.  The bipartisan bill clarifies that it is legal under federal law to modify the emissions system of a motor vehicle that is converted for race-use-only, and protects Americans’ right to convert street cars and motorcycles for motorsports competition.
“The RPM Act confirms that transforming motor vehicles into race cars used exclusively for competition does not violate the Clean Air Act,” according to the Specialty Equipment Manufacturers Association (SEMA), adding; “This American tradition was unquestioned for nearly 50 years until 2015 when the EPA took the position that converted street vehicles that compete on the track must remain emissions-compliant, even though they are not driven on public streets or highways.”
The EPA also maintains that the equipment used to transform a street vehicle into a race car is prohibited and is to be addressed in the bill.
 “American racing runs on traditions,” said Senator Burr. “For more than 50 years, motorsports enthusiasts have purchased cars and modified them to race, off of public roads.  However, this tradition was threatened when the Obama EPA attempted to make these modifications illegal. This legislation upholds Congress’ intent of the Clean Air Act and protects motorsports, for professionals and amateurs alike, for years to come.”
Motorsports competition involves tens of thousands of participants and vehicle owners each year, both amateur and professional.  Retail sales of racing products make up a nearly $2 billion market annually.  A majority of the estimated 1,300 race tracks operating across the U.S., including oval, road, dirt and off-road tracks, feature converted race vehicles that the EPA now considers to be illegal.
This past summer, representatives from KTM, Indian Motorcycle and the Motorcycle Industry Council (MIC) testified before the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) in Washington, D.C. to oppose the proposed tariffs of up to 100% on motorcycles, parts and accessories arriving from European Union countries.  This would have had a devastating effect on motorcycle manufacturers – especially the OEMs from Italy (Ducati, Aprilia, Moto Guzzi), Austria (KTM), Germany (BMW) and the United Kingdom (Triumph), among others.
Fortunately for the motorcycle industry, on a global scale, these proposed tariffs have been averted, according to the MIC.  “Had the tariffs been enacted, that would have meant extremely high prices for our American consumers of European motorcycles, parts, and accessories,” said Erik Pritchard, incoming MIC president and CEO.  “Increased costs would have even discouraged motorcycle riders from performing routine but critical maintenance, such as brake pad and tire replacements, due to potential doubling on the price of parts.”
A bipartisan bill has been introduced in Congress that aims to prevent Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) blending obligations from requiring ethanol to make up more than 9.7% of the total volume of gasoline projected to be sold or introduced into commerce in the U.S. for a given calendar year.
Introduced by U.S. Representatives Bill Flores (R-TX) and Peter Welch (D-VT) on May 7, H.R. 2540, titled the “Food and Fuel Consumer Protection Act of 2019,” would cap the ethanol mandate and stop the federal government from forcing E15 fuel into the market and ensure continued availability of E10 and ethanol-free gasoline (E0), which is safer to use in motorcycles and smaller-engined vehicles and gas powered equipment.
House Resolution 2540 has been referred to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce.
ABATE of Illinois and Sangamon County Sheriff Jack Campbell have joined together on the “Green Ice Initiative” to keep the streets safer by spreading the word about the dangers of grass clippings on roadways.  Dumping grass clippings on the road, they said, not only clogs storm sewers, it presents real dangers to motorcyclists and bicyclists.  It is also illegal.
Josh Witkowski, the state legislative coordinator for A.B.A.T.E. of Illinois, told KPVI Channel 6 News in Pocatello, IL that the problem is often worse in rural areas, where grass can reach 2 or 3 feet before someone cuts it.  The clippings then blow onto the roadway, sometimes 2 inches deep, where it can remain a hazard to riders for days.
Witkowski said he was aware of at least two fatalities, one in Kentucky and one in Illinois, where grass on the road was a factor.
As with so many other safety issues, Witkowski said it will take both education and law enforcement to create change.  Dumping is a violation of the state’s litter law.
Motorcycling, ATV riding, and side-by-side driving are among the country’s three largest outdoor recreational activities, when ranked by economic output, says a new federal report. 
According to newly-released data from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), the top three conventional outdoor activities generated $9.1 billion in economic output in 2017.  Outdoor recreation accounts for 2.2% of U.S. GDP, creating $778 billion in gross output supporting 5.2 million jobs.
And, it’s a growth sector.
According to the BEA release, its Outdoor Recreation Satellite Account “shows that inflation-adjusted (real) GDP for the outdoor recreation economy grew by 3.9% in 2017, outpacing the 2.4% growth of the overall U.S. economy.  Outdoor recreation is responsible for a larger share of GDP than many major industries, including chemical products manufacturing, farming and ranching, mining, and utilities.
The bureau defines “conventional” outdoor recreation as activities done for pleasure, such as camping, hiking, hunting, and fishing, and involving some physical effort.
The economic data on the national and, for the first time ever, state levels reinforce what the outdoor recreation industry has long believed: Outdoor recreation is a powerful driver of national and local economies and it is growing faster than the U.S. economy as a whole.
This is the second consecutive year that the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce, has released formal, national-level data, a notable milestone for the industry now identified as a unique sector of the economy.  “Having a rich set of both state and national data on outdoor recreation to draw upon will inform decision-making by businesses, policymakers, and managers of public lands and waters,” notes the Motorcycle Industry Council (MIC).
The University of Nottingham in England has found that when car drivers audibly say the word “bike” when seeing one at an intersection could drastically reduce the chances of an accident.
One of the most common types of accidents for motorcyclists is a driver pulling out in front of them, traditionally referred to in the U.S. as “R-O-W”, or left-turn Right of Way violation.  Previously, such incidents have been interpreted as failures to see the bikes, but a professor at the University of Nottingham thinks it has more to do with forgetting they were there at all.
Dr Peter Chapman has conducted research that he claims proves that car drivers see the bike on the road but that their brain ‘forgets’ it is there at all.
The study found that drivers were five times more likely to fail to act to an oncoming motorcycle than you would be if a car was positioned in the same place and at the same speed.  Dr Chapman and his team have not completely got to the bottom of why a car driver does this, but they think the car driver’s brain becomes distracted between the time they see the bike and when they decide to pull out.
The theory is that speaking the word “bike” aloud when you see one approaching at a junction could help to strengthen the memory of seeing the motorcycle, helping to prevent the brain from overwriting it with what the driver wants for lunch or how late they are for that meeting.
It is hoped that drivers resorting to such nursery-rhyme type of memory games can help them become safer drivers – possibly avoiding the necessity of enacting harsher penalties for dangerous and careless driving.
If you feel somebody’s watching you, it may not be paranoia.  While modern mobile devices are the ultimate tools of convenience, when in the hands of drivers these handheld computers also contribute to increased accidents and fatalities on our roadways -- particularly for motorcyclists who are more vulnerable. To help curb distracted behavior behind the wheel, Australia has deployed surveillance devices that peek inside the passenger compartment and sanction those driving under the influence of smartphones. 
During the pilot phase of the Mobile Phone Detection Camera (MPDC) initiative, 8.5 million vehicles were checked from January 2019 to June 2019 in the Australian state of New South Wales.  Though citations weren’t administered during the test period, 100,000 drivers were caught handling devices while operating their vehicles.
Once the pilot phase ends, violators will receive a $344 AUD fine (about $230 USD) and a 5 point penalty on their driving record.  Drivers also have little clemency with the system as the MPDC can be fixed or mobile, works day and night, and operates in all weather conditions.
By the end of 2019, Australia will deploy 45 MPDCs with plans to expand the program through 2023.
Harley-Davidson has applied for a patent that will enable groups of riders to maintain a constant speed thanks to kinematics and radar-guided cruise control.  This new type of adaptive cruise control is specifically aimed at Harley’s current target demographic; groups of riders.
Adaptive cruise control is nothing new in the world of four-wheeled transportation, but now a major motorcycle manufacturer has stepped in with a system that is claimed to allow a bike to lock on to another bike and keep a set separation distance or separation time from the target bike while offering the rider the chance to pick multiple bikes or cars within a lane to follow.
The Harley system incorporates a transceiver that can ping out the bike's location to other vehicles on the road, so with a group of riders sharing the same piece of  tarmac, and using the same H-D adaptive cruise control system, a group of bikes can track and monitor the location of each other in real-time for a safer and more controlled group riding experience.
Paris Harley-Davidson, a dealership located in Paris, Texas, recently set a new Guinness World Record for the “Most Harley-Davidson Motorcycles in a Parade”.
The number to beat was 2,404, which was held by the Hellas Motorcycle Club in Greece since 2010, and on Oct. 5, 2019 the Paris H-D parade crushed that mark with 3,497 motorcycles.  Harley enthusiasts from 48 states, Canada and Europe traveled to the event to take part in the historic gathering.
”WE DID IT!  We brought it home to AMERICA,” posted motorcycling philanthropist Adam Sandoval, a participant known for riding to every Harley-Davidson dealership in the lower 48 states with his dog Scooter to raise money and awareness for our military and their families.

Paris H-D was quick to give props to local law enforcement and first responders, along with countless volunteers and supporters.
QUOTABLE QUOTE:  “If they can get you asking the wrong questions, they don't have to worry about the answers.”
~ Thomas Pynchon (b. 1937), American novelist

RIDING FREE FROM DC: Your Weekly Biker Bulletin from Inside the Beltway


Your Weekly Biker Bulletin from Inside the Beltway
Your Motorcycle Riders Foundation team in Washington, D.C. is pleased to provide our members with the latest information and updates on issues that impact the freedom and safety of American street motorcyclists. Count on your MRF to keep you informed about a range of matters that are critical to the advancement of motorcycling and its associated lifestyle. Published weekly when the U.S. Congress is in session.

100 and Counting
We’ve hit an important milestone in our push to pass H. Res 255 the motorcyclists profiling resolution in the House of Representatives. This week we gained our 100th co-sponsor, which means that nearly 25% of the House of Representatives is now on the record standing with the motorcycle community. It’s an excellent time to take a look inside the numbers and talk about the diversity of U.S. Representatives that support us.
  • We have bipartisan support with 59 Republicans and 41 Democrats on the resolution
  • We have at least one member from 37 different states and American Samoa
  • We have the Dean of the House, the longest-serving Congressman, Rep. Young (Alaska) and the second longest-serving member Rep. Sensenbrenner (Wisconsin)
  • We have 12 Freshman Congressman
  • We have the highest-ranking Republican on the Transportation Committee, Rep. Graves (Missouri)
  • We have two former law enforcement officials Rep. Higgins (Louisiana) and Rep Stauber (Minnesota)
  • We have the Chairman of the Freedom Caucus Rep. Biggs (Arizona), and 12 members of the caucus which is the most conservative group in Congress
  • We have the Chairman of the Progressive Caucus Rep. Pocan (Wisconsin) and 15 members of the caucus which is the most liberal group in Congress
  • We have the Chairman of the Blue Dog Caucus Rep. Brindisi (New York) the caucus for moderate Democrats
  • We have 13 members of the Main Street Partnership the caucus for moderate Republicans
  • We have 4 members of the Congressional Black Caucus
  • We have 9 members of the Judiciary Committee who have jurisdiction over the resolution
What does all this mean? It means that we have an amazingly diverse set of lawmakers that have decided to stand with us on the issue of profiling. Whether they be Republican or Democrat, west coast or east coast, newly elected or long-serving, they have all gone on record against the profiling of motorcyclists.
How did we do this? We have used every tool in the motorcyclists toolbox to gain support. MRF members flooded Congressional mailboxes with letters using our CQ “Call to Action” software in April. In May, MRF members roamed the halls of Congress and met with staff and lawmakers during Bikers Inside the Beltway. Since Bikers Inside the Beltway, the DC team has done 193 in-person meetings on Capitol Hill about this issue.   It's not an exaggeration to say almost every member of the House of Representatives has heard about this issue from us.
Why is this important? In order for our resolution to be voted on, we need to demonstrate to Congressional leadership that it has broad based support. The easiest way to show that is by driving cosponsors to the resolution and having members of Congress attach their name to it.
Our initial goal was to double the 37 cosponsors we had during the last Congress. Once we hit that goal, we were told by our champions that getting to 100 would be an important benchmark. Well, we hit that and continue to run up our numbers. 
While we will continue to educate lawmakers on the issue of motorcyclist profiling, we have asked Rep. Walberg and his staff to start pressing for a vote on the resolution. We have several other allies that have offered to help push our case, and we are hopeful that our hard work will be rewarded with an official vote and passage of this resolution. We will be relentless in our advocacy on this issue and will not rest until the House of Representatives joins the Senate and passes H. Res 255.
Click HERE to see if your member has signed on to H. Res 255.

RPM Act Introduced in the Senate
On Wednesday, Senator Richard Burr (R-NC) and Senator Joe Manchin (D-WV) along with 24 (YES, 24!) other original cosponsors re-introduced S. 2602, Recognizing the Protection of Motorsports Act of 2019 (RPM Act), which will exclude vehicles to be used solely for competition from certain provisions of the Clean Air Act, and for other purposes.  As you may remember, the Motorcycle Riders Foundation along with a dozen other organizations teamed up with the Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) during the 115th Congress in promoting the passage of this legislation which would exempt you from the provisions of the Clean Air Act which makes it illegal for you to turn a street-legal vehicle or motorcycle into performance race vehicle.  The legislation took some time to be introduced during this Congress due to some changes to the previous version of the bill.  One of those changes would ensure this legislation would be in effect immediately after passage and would protect the racers, consumers and aftermarket industry for using or producing, selling, and/or distributing emissions-related race parts for use on vehicles used exclusively for competition while the EPA writes regulations.
The majority staff of the House Energy and Commerce Committee is still reviewing the changes to the language, but we anticipate the companion house bill will be introduced in the coming weeks.  We ask you to be ready for a future call to action for the RPM Act once the House version is released.

State News – ABATE of Wisconsin sends call to action to oppose the use of blender pumps
The MRF has been working with our SMRO partner, ABATE of Wisconsin, to help them utilize our CQ software to aid the riders in Wisconsin to engage with their elected state officials to oppose AB 382 and SB 349 which would allow blender pumps to dispense E10 and E15 with a shared hose and nozzle.  The use of these blender pumps increases the dangers of misfueling your motorcycle or vehicle at the pump.
To learn more about the issue in Wisconsin, you can reach out to Steve Panten, Legislative Director of ABATE of Wisconsin, by emailing him directly at with your questions.

If you are a rider from Wisconsin, we ask that you click the link below to let your elected officials know that you oppose blender pumps being used in commerce in the state of Wisconsin.

NoteIf your SMRO would like to use CQ to send out state legislative Call to Action’s, please reach out to MRF SSMRO Rep Dave Dwyer at for more information.

Rocky & Tiffany
The Motorcycle Riders Foundation
About Motorcycle Riders Foundation
The Motorcycle Riders Foundation (MRF) provides leadership at the federal level for states’ motorcyclists’ rights organizations as well as motorcycle clubs and individual riders. The MRF is chiefly concerned with issues at the national and international levels that impact the freedom and safety of American street motorcyclists. The MRF is committed to being a national advocate for the advancement of motorcycling and its associated lifestyle and works in conjunction with its partners to help educate elected officials and policymakers in Washington and beyond.