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Wednesday, June 7, 2017

FCC Freedom of Information

OFF THE WIRE
FCC Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) The Freedom of Information Act,
commonly known as the FOIA, was enacted by Congress in 1966 to give
the American public greater access to the Federal Government's
records. The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996
expanded the scope of the FOIA to encompass electronic records and
require the creation of "electronic reading rooms" to make records
more easily and widely available to the public. Most recently in
December 2005, Executive Order 13392, "Improving Agency Disclosure of
Information," reaffirmed that FOIA "has provided an important means
through which the public can obtain information regarding the
activities of Federal agencies" and required Federal agencies to make
their FOIA programs "citizen-centered and results-oriented."

The following is an informal explanation of the FOIA process at the
FCC. Please consult the full text of the FCC's regulations
implementing the FOIA, found at 47 C.F.R. §§ 0.441 - 0.470, before
filing a FOIA request. In addition, you may wish to consult the United
States Department of Justice's annual guide to the FOIA entitled
Freedom of Information Act Guide and Privacy Overview that contains an
extensive analysis of the statute and FOIA case law. If these
reference guides do not provide you the information you need to submit
your FOIA request, you can also contact the FCC's FOIA Requester
Service Center via phone, email, or surface mail. Get contact
information for the FOIA Requester Service Center.


What types of materials are available without filing a FOIA request?

You do not have to file a FOIA request to obtain information which is
routinely available for public inspection, including records from
docketed cases, broadcast applications and related files, petitions
for rulemakings, various legal and technical publications, legislative
history compilations, etc. See 47 C.F.R. §§ 0.453 and 0.455. Much of
this information is available on our website.


How do I obtain publicly available documents and other materials from the FCC?

Many of these documents and other FCC publications already appear on
the FCC's Internet Homepage. Documents may also be viewed in the FCC
Reference Information Center at the FCC Headquarters at 445 12th
Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20554. The Reference Information Center
is open to the public Monday through Thursday from 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM
and from 8:00 AM to 11:30 AM on Friday. A person who wants to inspect
publicly available FCC records need only appear at the Commission's
headquarters and ask to see the records. Alternatively, you may write
or telephone in advance to schedule a date and time to make the
records available for inspection. Advance notice to the FCC is
suggested in some circumstances, i.e., if the request is for a large
number of documents or for older documents which may have to be
recalled from storage. Get more information about the Reference
Information Center.

Copies of any available materials can be made in the FCC Reference
Information Center or obtained through the FCC's copy contractor, Best
Copy Printing, Inc. (BCPI) at (202) 488-5300, (202) 488-5563 or
www.bcpiweb.com.


How do I file a FOIA request?

To make a FOIA request pursuant to 47 C.F.R. § 0.461, you have several options:

(1) You may fill out the Electronic FOIA Request Form and submit it to us; or

(2) You may write to us via surface mail. If you choose to send your
request via surface mail you MUST: (a) write the words "Freedom of
Information Act Request" at the top of your letter and on the outside
of the mailing envelope, (b) date your request, (c) give us your
daytime telephone number and/or daytime e-mail contact address so that
our staff can get in touch with you during normal business hours if
they have questions, and (d) provide as much information as possible
regarding each document you are seeking. You should also specify the
maximum search fee that you are prepared to pay for this request. Send
your letter to the address below.

(3) You may also fax or e-mail your request to the contact information below.


What types of materials are available through a FOIA request?

Under the FOIA and the FCC's implementing rules, you are allowed to
obtain copies of FCC records unless the records contain information
that is exempt under the FOIA from mandatory disclosure. To learn
about these exemptions, please scroll down to the next section.


What types of materials are not available under FOIA?

Although most FCC documents, records, and publications are accessible
through FOIA, some types of FCC records are not available. Section
552(b) of the FOIA contains nine types of records which are routinely
exempt from disclosure under the FOIA:

1.Records classified national defense or foreign policy materials, 5
U.S.C. § 552(b)(1);

2.Internal personnel rules and agency practices, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(2);

3.Information specifically exempted from disclosure by another
statute, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(3);

4.Trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from
a person and privileged or confidential, 5 U.S.C § 552(b)(4);

5.Inter- or intra-agency memoranda or letters which would not be
available to a party in litigation with the agency, 5 U.S.C. §
552(b)(5);

6.Personnel, medical and similar files, disclosure of which would
constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, 5
U.S.C. § 552(b)(6);

7.Records compiled for law enforcement purposes, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(7);

8.Records relating to the examination, operations, or condition of
financial institutions, 5 U.S.C. § 552(b)(8); and

9.Oil well data, 5 U.S.C. § 552 (b)(9).

Even if a record falls within one of these FOIA exemptions, the FCC
may, in some circumstances, release the records, depending upon the
exemption at issue and the circumstances of the FOIA request.


Are there any privacy considerations which the FCC must consider in
granting your FOIA request?

Under the FOIA Exemption 6 and the Privacy Act, the FCC may be
prohibited from disclosing information about an individual from a
system of records without the written consent of the individual to
whom the record pertains.


Can the FCC deny my FOIA request?

Yes. If the Bureau or Office that is the custodian of the records
determines that there are no records responsive to your request, or
that one or more of the FOIA exemptions described above applies to the
documents you request, your request will be denied in writing.


How long will it take to get the information that I request?

Under the FOIA, the FCC must determine within 20 business days of
receipt of your FOIA request by the FOIA Requester Service Center
whether it is appropriate to grant or deny a FOIA request. The FCC
makes every effort to act on a request within this time frame. If we
determine that your request will take longer than 20 days to process,
we will notify you in writing explaining the circumstances requiring
the extension and establishing a date for response of not more than 10
working days beyond the initial 20-day limit.

However, if the FCC determines that the request cannot be processed
within this 10 day extension, we will provide you with an opportunity
to modify your request so that it may be processed within the extended
time limit, or provide an opportunity for you to arrange with the FCC
for an alternative timeframe for processing the original or modified
request. We will also advise you of any additional charges involved.
For this reason, it is important for you to include a telephone number
where we can call you to discuss any issues involving your FOIA
request. Even if we call, you will receive a letter from the FCC
confirming your consent to any additional time and/or costs that may
be necessary to comply with your FOIA request.

You may seek expedited processing of your FOIA request if you have a
compelling need for the documents.


If my FOIA request is denied, what can I do?

If your FOIA request is denied in whole or in part, the Bureau or
Office that made the decision will notify you of the denial of your
request and of your right to file an administrative application for
review. The application for review and the envelope containing it
should have the words "Review of Freedom of Information Action"
clearly written on them and must be filed within 30 calendar days of
the date of the Bureau or Office's written decision. A FOIA
application for review should be sent to the Office of General
Counsel, Federal Communications Commission, 445 - 12th Street, S.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20554. A copy of the application for review should
also be sent to the person (if any) who originally submitted the
records you are seeking. If the FCC denies your application for review
in whole or in part, you may seek judicial review of that decision in
a United States District Court.


Are there any costs to making a FOIA request?

Yes. Under the FOIA, we are allowed to charge for our research and
reproduction services under certain conditions. Your FOIA request
should specify the amount of FOIA fees you are willing to pay. Please
note, under 47 CFR § 0.467(e), if the Commission estimates that your
search charges are likely to exceed $25 or an amount which you have
indicated you are willing to pay, we will notify you of the estimated
fee charge prior to doing the search and give you the opportunity to
revise or clarify your FOIA request.

Commercial use requesters will be assessed charges that recover the
full direct costs associated with the search, review, and duplication
of records.

Educational institutions, representatives of the news media, and
non-commercial scientific institution requesters must pay for
duplication only, and will not be charged for the first 100 pages.
News media requesters, however, are entitled to a reduced assessment
only when the request is for the purpose of disseminating information.

The Commission will charge all other requesters who do not fit into
any of the categories above fees which cover the full, reasonable
direct cost of searching for and reproducing records that are
responsive to the request, except that the first 100 pages of the
reproduction and the first two hours of search time shall be free of
charge.

If you believe you are entitled to a restricted fee assessment, or a
fee waiver, you must provide us with a statement explaining with
specificity the reasons demonstrating why you qualify for a restricted
fee or a fee waiver, including a statement certifying that the
information will not be used to further your commercial interests.
Please consult the rules, 47 C.F.R. § 0.470(c) - (e), when seeking a
restricted fee or fee waiver.

The search fee is based on the salary level of the employee(s) who
conducts the search. The fee charge is computed at the Step 5 of the
specified grade level plus 20 percent to cover personnel benefits.

Kurt Sutter Calls Emilio Rivera The Linchpin Between Sons Of Anarchy And Mayans MC

OFF THE WIRE
Charlie Ridgely
Kurt Sutter brought Sons Of Anarchy to life in the fall of 2008, and the show became an immediate hit for FX. In fact, the biker drama became the networks highest-rated show in its history.
The creator is looking to strike gold again this year, with the SOA spin-off series Mayans MC. This show will take place after Sons Of Anarchy ended, and follow the Mayans Motorcycle Club - a former rival of the Sons.
In order to carry the magic over from one series to another, Sutter needed to bridge the gap between worlds. Something, or someone, is needed to get fans of the original show invested in the spin-off, as well as help the story keep continuity from one series to another.

This is where Emilio Rivera comes in.
The actor played Mayan founder Marcus Alvarez for all seven seasons of Sons Of Anarchy, and instantly became beloved by fans of the series. While he hasn't been officially revealed as a part of Mayans MC, Sutter recently said that Alvarez is the entire connection between the two shows.
During an interview with Desde Hollywood, Sutter began talking about Rivera's role on Sons. After singing his praises, and revealing what a talented and humble actor Rivera is - the creator went on to explain Rivera is so vital to making Mayans MC run smoothly.
"When this other project was coming up with the Mayans; he's my linchpin in fusing these two mythologies. It's so great to be able to work with him again, and be around that energy, because it reminds me that this is why we do what we do."
Rivera's character is one fans are familiar with, so it makes sense to utilize him in the next series. But, it doesn't look like that was Sutter's only reason.
Emilio Rivera is not only a talented actor, but a great guy to be around. If you had that kind of talent in your inner-circle, why wouldn't you want to utilize it?

More MAYANS MC News:
What To Expect From The Show / Emilio Rivera Weighed In On Jax And Mayans MC / Kurt Sutter Set To Direct Mayans MC

Mayans MC is set in a post Jax Teller world, where EZ Reyes, a prospect in the Mayan MC charter on the Cali/Mexi border, struggles with his desire for vengeance against the cartel, and his need for respect from the women he loves

Ten Most Notorious Outlaw Biker Gangs...............

OFF THE WIRE
BY: William J. Felchner
VIDEO,
http://youtu.be/CWNmCnyjUEA
Source: factoidz.com
USA - The outlaw biker gang can trace its origins to the period after World War II where returning veterans and other roadies began to organize themselves in clubs, pining for the freedom, action and nonconformity that the motorcycle offered. One of the seminal events in outlaw biker history was "The Hollister Riot," which took place over the July Fourth 1947 holiday weekend in Hollister, California, where some 4,000 motorcycle enthusiasts invaded the small town. The ensuing ruckus was later sensationalized in the July 21, 1947, issue of Life magazine, marking a famous milestone in biker history.
The Hollister Gypsy Tour, as the event was billed, included the Boozefighters, a South Central Los Angeles motorcycle club founded in 1946 by World War II vet William "Wino Willie" Forkner (1921-1997). Forkner reveled in his reputation as a biker hellraiser, and reportedly served as the inspiration for Lee Marvin's Chino character in Columbia Pictures' The Wild One (1953), which also starred Marlon Brando as bad boy Johnny Strabler, leader of the fictional Black Rebels.

Here are ten notorious outlaw biker gangs that rule the road in biker history. These are the so-called "1%ers," the bikers who operate out of the mainstream as compared to the other 99% of motorcyclists who abide by the law and norms of society. Kick start your engines and show your colors…

Hells Angels (1948-present)

Unarguably the best-known outlaw biker gang in history, Hells Angels owes its name to World War II and possibly the 1930 Howard Hughes movie of the same name. During Big Two, there did exist the United States Army Air Forces 303rd Heavy Bombardment Group (H) of the U.S. 8th Air Force which billed itself as Hell's Angels, flying B-17 combat missions out of Molesworth, England, from 1942-45.

Hells Angels was formed in the Fontana/San Bernardino, California, area on March 17, 1948 as an offshoot of the Pissed Off Bastards of Bloomington, a California motorcycle club founded in 1945 by American veterans of the air war. Other independent chapters of Hells Angels later sprouted up in Oakland, Gardena and San Francisco.

Hells Angels eventually spread its wings, with the club now sporting charters in 29 countries, including Canada, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Russia, Greece, Denmark, France, Turkey and the Dominican Republic.The Hells Angels insignia is the infamous "death's head," designed by Frank Sadilek, a former president of the San Francisco chapter.

Both American and Canadian law enforcement have labeled the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) a crime syndicate, asserting that its members routinely engage in drug trafficking, extortion and violence. Hells Angels garnered notoriety at the Altamont Free Concert on December 6, 1969, when they were hired by the Rolling Stones to act as stage security. Mayhem ensued at the drug/alcohol fueled event that boasted of a crowd of 300,000, with four people losing their lives.

Mongols (1969-present)

The Mongols was founded on December 5, 1969 in Montebello, California, by Hispanic veterans of the Vietnam War. Reportedly denied membership in Hells Angels because of their race, the Mongols eventually branched out, currently boasting of chapters in 14 states and four foreign countries.

Law enforcement has classified the Mongols as a criminal enterprise, engaging in loan sharking, drug trafficking, racketeering, theft and murder for hire. ATF agent William Queen, using the alias Billy St. John, successfully infiltrated the Mongols in 1998, resulting in 53 Mongol convictions.

The Mongols and their hated rivals Hells Angels engaged in an infamous brawl and gunfight at Harrah's Casino in Laughlin, Nevada, in 2002. When the smoke had cleared, one Mongol and two Hells Angels lay dead on the casino floor.

Pagans (1959-present)

Lou Dobkins, a biochemist at the National Institute of Health, founded the Pagans in Prince George's County, Maryland, in 1959. By the late 1960s, the Pagans were the dominant biker club on the East Coast, riding British Triumph motorcycles (later traded in for Harley Davidsons) and sporting their distinctive patch depicting the Norse fire god Sutr wielding a flaming sword.

The Pagans currently operate in eleven states, with Delaware County, Pennsylvania, serving as their Mother chapter. American law enforcement has classified the Pagans as a criminal enterprise, engaging in a host of illegal activities, including gun running, drug trafficking, arson, methamphetamine production and distribution, prostitution, racketeering and murder for hire.

In 2002, the Pagans and Hells Angels clashed at the Hellraiser Ball in Long Island, New York, where ten people were wounded and one Pagan was allegedly shot and killed by a Hells Angels member. Three years later, the Vice President of the Hells Angels Philadelphia chapter was killed by gunfire while driving his truck on the Schuylkill Expressway, with the Pagans allegedly carrying out the hit.

Outlaws (1935-present)

The Outlaws can trace their history back to 1935 when the McCook Outlaws Motorcycle Club was formed out of Matilda's Bar on old Route 66 in McCook, Illinois. In the ensuing years, the club morphed into the McCook Outlaws, the Chicago Outlaws and the American Outlaws Association (A.O.A.). Their first out of state chapter came in Florida in 1967. In 1977, the Canadian biker gang Satan's Choice joined the Outlaws franchise, making it the first chapter outside of the United States. Today, the Outlaws are active in some 14 states, with international chapters in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Germany, Sweden, Thailand, Norway, Poland, the Philippines, et al.

The Outlaws sport a distinctive patch comprised of a skull and crossed pistons. Their official motto, adopted in 1969, is "God forgives, Outlaws don't."

Law enforcement has categorized the Outlaws as an organized crime syndicate, engaging in drug trafficking, murder, extortion and prostitution. The Outlaws have had their run-ins with police and other biker gangs. In 2007, Outlaws member Frank Rego Vital was shot and killed outside the Crazy Horse Saloon in Forest Park, Georgia, by two Renegades motorcycle club members who had reportedly acted in self-defense.

Bandidos (1966-present)

The Bandidos was founded by Marine Corps and Vietnam War veteran Don Chambers in San Leon, Texas, in 1966. The club's official motto is "We are the people our parents warned us about," with a big Mexican in sombrero brandishing a machete and pistol adorning the club's distinctive patch. The Bandidos currently boast of 104 chapters in the United States, along with international chapters in Germany, Australia, Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Costa Rica, Belgium and the Channel Islands.

Law enforcement has classified the Bandidos as an organized crime syndicate, engaging in murder, drug trafficking, money laundering, extortion, gun running and witness tampering. From 1994 to 1997 the so-called "Great Nordic Biker War" was waged in Scandinavia pitting Bandidos versus Hells Angels in a bloody turf war that resulted in eleven murders. Vagos (1965-present)

Originally called the Psychos, Vagos was formed in Temescal Valley, California, in 1965. The club's distinctive green/red patch pictures the Norse god Loki straddling a motorcycle. Vagos currently operates mainly in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

Both the FBI and the ATF consider Vagos an outlaw biker gang, engaging in drug trafficking, gun running, auto theft, money laundering and murder. In 2002, however, Vagos members turned in the estranged wife of a Pomona, California, police detective who had attempted to hire a Vagos hit man to murder her husband.

Law enforcement has successfully conducted several undercover investigations of Vagos and their illegal activities. In 2004, authorities arrested 26 Vagos members/associates and seized $125,000 in cash, drugs and weapons.

Pennsylvania Warlocks (1967-present)/Florida Warlocks (1967-present)

The Pennsylvania Warlocks was founded in Philadelphia in February 1967. The club's distinctive patch features the Harpy, the legendary winged beast from Greek mythology. The Pennsylvania Warlocks boast of chapters in New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Florida, Minnesota and Massachusetts. The Pennsylvania Warlocks have been linked to organized crime and methamphetamine production and distribution.

The Florida Warlocks was founded by U.S. Navy veteran Tom "Grub" Freeland in Orlando, Florida, in 1967. The club's logo is a blazing eagle while their official motto is "To find us you must be good. To catch us…you must be fast. To beat us…you must be kidding!" The Florida Warlocks have chapters in South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, New York, the United Kingdom and Germany. The Florida Warlocks were successfully infiltrated by the ATF in 1991 and again in 2003, with convictions for drug and weapon charges resulting from the latter.

Sons of Silence (1966-present)

The Sons of Silence was founded in Niwot, Colorado, in 1966. The club sports a distinctive patch featuring the American Eagle superimposed over a large "A" – highly reminiscent of the Anheuser-Busch logo. The gang's official motto is "Donec mors non separat" – Latin for "Until death separates us."

The Sons of Silence boast of chapters in Illinois, Wyoming, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Kentucky, North Dakota, Mississippi and Germany. The Sons of Silence have been implicated in drug trafficking and weapons violations.

Highwaymen (1954-present)

The Highwaymen was established in Detroit, Michigan, in 1954. The club's distinctive patch features a winged skeleton sporting a leather jacket, motorcycle cap and the black and silver colors. "Highwaymen forever, forever Highwaymen" serves as the gang's official motto.

The Highwaymen currently have chapters in Michigan, Tennessee, Florida, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Norway. The Highwaymen Motorcycle Club has been the subject of intense law enforcement scrutiny through the years. In 2007, the FBI arrested 40 Detroit Highwaymen members/associates on a variety of charges, including drug trafficking, theft, racketeering, insurance fraud, police corruption and murder for hire.

Gypsy Joker (1956-present)

The Gypsy Joker was founded in San Francisco, California, on April 1, 1956. The club's official patch features a grinning skull. Forced out of San Francisco by Hells Angels, the Gypsy Joker headed north to Oregon and Washington state in the late 1960s.

The Gypsy Joker has some 35 chapters worldwide, including active clubs in Australia, Germany, South Africa and Norway. The club is especially high profile in Australia, where in 2009 five Gypsy Jokers engaged in a drug-related shootout with a rival "bikie" gang (as they are called Down Under) in Perth.

Ten More Notorious Outlaw Biker Gangs

Here are ten more infamous biker gangs, along with where established and years active.

•Free Souls (Eugene, Oregon, 1968-present) •The Breed (Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1965-present) •Rebels (Brisbane, Australia, 1969-present) •Grim Reapers (Calgary, Canada, 1967-1997) •Iron Horsemen (Cincinnati, Ohio, mid-1960s-present) •The Finks (Adelaide, Australia, 1969-present) •Brother Speed (Boise, Idaho, 1969-present) •Devils Diciples (Fontana, California, 1967-present) •Solo Angeles (Tijuana, Mexico, 1959-present) •Diablos (San Bernardino, California, 1964-present) About William J. Felchner William J. Felchner's many feature articles have appeared in such periodicals as True West, Hot Rod, Movie Collector's World, Sports Collectors Digest, Persimmon Hill, Big Reel, Corvette Quarterly, Old West, Antiques & Auction News, Storyboard, Goldmine, Autograph Collector, Warman's Today's Collector, The Paper & Advertising Collectors'
Frontier Times, Television History, Illinois and Military Trader.

Monday, June 5, 2017

Ten Most Notorious Outlaw Biker Gangs

Ten Most Notorious Outlaw Biker Gangs.

BY: William J. Felchner
Source: factoidz.com
US - The outlaw biker gang can trace its origins to the period after World War II where returning veterans and other roadies began to organize themselves in clubs, pining for the freedom, action and nonconformity that the motorcycle offered. One of the seminal events in outlaw biker history was "The Hollister Riot," which took place over the July Fourth 1947 holiday weekend in Hollister, California, where some 4,000 motorcycle enthusiasts invaded the small town. The ensuing ruckus was later sensationalized in the July 21, 1947, issue of Life magazine, marking a famous milestone in biker history.
The Hollister Gypsy Tour, as the event was billed, included the Boozefighters, a South Central Los Angeles motorcycle club founded in 1946 by World War II vet William "Wino Willie" Forkner (1921-1997). Forkner reveled in his reputation as a biker hellraiser, and reportedly served as the inspiration for Lee Marvin's Chino character in Columbia Pictures' The Wild One (1953), which also starred Marlon Brando as bad boy Johnny Strabler, leader of the fictional Black Rebels.

Here are ten notorious outlaw biker gangs that rule the road in biker history. These are the so-called "1%ers," the bikers who operate out of the mainstream as compared to the other 99% of motorcyclists who abide by the law and norms of society. Kick start your engines and show your colors…

Hells Angels (1948-present)

Unarguably the best-known outlaw biker gang in history, Hells Angels owes its name to World War II and possibly the 1930 Howard Hughes movie of the same name. During Big Two, there did exist the United States Army Air Forces 303rd Heavy Bombardment Group (H) of the U.S. 8th Air Force which billed itself as Hell's Angels, flying B-17 combat missions out of Molesworth, England, from 1942-45.

Hells Angels was formed in the Fontana/San Bernardino, California, area on March 17, 1948 as an offshoot of the Pissed Off Bastards of Bloomington, a California motorcycle club founded in 1945 by American veterans of the air war. Other independent chapters of Hells Angels later sprouted up in Oakland, Gardena and San Francisco.

Hells Angels eventually spread its wings, with the club now sporting charters in 29 countries, including Canada, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Russia, Greece, Denmark, France, Turkey and the Dominican Republic.The Hells Angels insignia is the infamous "death's head," designed by Frank Sadilek, a former president of the San Francisco chapter.

Both American and Canadian law enforcement have labeled the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) a crime syndicate, asserting that its members routinely engage in drug trafficking, extortion and violence. Hells Angels garnered notoriety at the Altamont Free Concert on December 6, 1969, when they were hired by the Rolling Stones to act as stage security. Mayhem ensued at the drug/alcohol fueled event that boasted of a crowd of 300,000, with four people losing their lives.

Mongols (1969-present)

The Mongols was founded on December 5, 1969 in Montebello, California, by Hispanic veterans of the Vietnam War. Reportedly denied membership in Hells Angels because of their race, the Mongols eventually branched out, currently boasting of chapters in 14 states and four foreign countries.

Law enforcement has classified the Mongols as a criminal enterprise, engaging in loan sharking, drug trafficking, racketeering, theft and murder for hire. ATF agent William Queen, using the alias Billy St. John, successfully infiltrated the Mongols in 1998, resulting in 53 Mongol convictions.

The Mongols and their hated rivals Hells Angels engaged in an infamous brawl and gunfight at Harrah's Casino in Laughlin, Nevada, in 2002. When the smoke had cleared, one Mongol and two Hells Angels lay dead on the casino floor.

Pagans (1959-present)

Lou Dobkins, a biochemist at the National Institute of Health, founded the Pagans in Prince George's County, Maryland, in 1959. By the late 1960s, the Pagans were the dominant biker club on the East Coast, riding British Triumph motorcycles (later traded in for Harley Davidsons) and sporting their distinctive patch depicting the Norse fire god Sutr wielding a flaming sword.

The Pagans currently operate in eleven states, with Delaware County, Pennsylvania, serving as their Mother chapter. American law enforcement has classified the Pagans as a criminal enterprise, engaging in a host of illegal activities, including gun running, drug trafficking, arson, methamphetamine production and distribution, prostitution, racketeering and murder for hire.

In 2002, the Pagans and Hells Angels clashed at the Hellraiser Ball in Long Island, New York, where ten people were wounded and one Pagan was allegedly shot and killed by a Hells Angels member. Three years later, the Vice President of the Hells Angels Philadelphia chapter was killed by gunfire while driving his truck on the Schuylkill Expressway, with the Pagans allegedly carrying out the hit.

Outlaws (1935-present)

The Outlaws can trace their history back to 1935 when the McCook Outlaws Motorcycle Club was formed out of Matilda's Bar on old Route 66 in McCook, Illinois. In the ensuing years, the club morphed into the McCook Outlaws, the Chicago Outlaws and the American Outlaws Association (A.O.A.). Their first out of state chapter came in Florida in 1967. In 1977, the Canadian biker gang Satan's Choice joined the Outlaws franchise, making it the first chapter outside of the United States. Today, the Outlaws are active in some 14 states, with international chapters in the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Germany, Sweden, Thailand, Norway, Poland, the Philippines, et al.

The Outlaws sport a distinctive patch comprised of a skull and crossed pistons. Their official motto, adopted in 1969, is "God forgives, Outlaws don't."

Law enforcement has categorized the Outlaws as an organized crime syndicate, engaging in drug trafficking, murder, extortion and prostitution. The Outlaws have had their run-ins with police and other biker gangs. In 2007, Outlaws member Frank Rego Vital was shot and killed outside the Crazy Horse Saloon in Forest Park, Georgia, by two Renegades motorcycle club members who had reportedly acted in self-defense.

Bandidos (1966-present)

The Bandidos was founded by Marine Corps and Vietnam War veteran Don Chambers in San Leon, Texas, in 1966. The club's official motto is "We are the people our parents warned us about," with a big Mexican in sombrero brandishing a machete and pistol adorning the club's distinctive patch. The Bandidos currently boast of 104 chapters in the United States, along with international chapters in Germany, Australia, Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Costa Rica, Belgium and the Channel Islands.

Law enforcement has classified the Bandidos as an organized crime syndicate, engaging in murder, drug trafficking, money laundering, extortion, gun running and witness tampering. From 1994 to 1997 the so-called "Great Nordic Biker War" was waged in Scandinavia pitting Bandidos versus Hells Angels in a bloody turf war that resulted in eleven murders. Vagos (1965-present)

Originally called the Psychos, Vagos was formed in Temescal Valley, California, in 1965. The club's distinctive green/red patch pictures the Norse god Loki straddling a motorcycle. Vagos currently operates mainly in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

Both the FBI and the ATF consider Vagos an outlaw biker gang, engaging in drug trafficking, gun running, auto theft, money laundering and murder. In 2002, however, Vagos members turned in the estranged wife of a Pomona, California, police detective who had attempted to hire a Vagos hit man to murder her husband.

Law enforcement has successfully conducted several undercover investigations of Vagos and their illegal activities. In 2004, authorities arrested 26 Vagos members/associates and seized $125,000 in cash, drugs and weapons.

Pennsylvania Warlocks (1967-present)/Florida Warlocks (1967-present)

The Pennsylvania Warlocks was founded in Philadelphia in February 1967. The club's distinctive patch features the Harpy, the legendary winged beast from Greek mythology. The Pennsylvania Warlocks boast of chapters in New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, Florida, Minnesota and Massachusetts. The Pennsylvania Warlocks have been linked to organized crime and methamphetamine production and distribution.

The Florida Warlocks was founded by U.S. Navy veteran Tom "Grub" Freeland in Orlando, Florida, in 1967. The club's logo is a blazing eagle while their official motto is "To find us you must be good. To catch us…you must be fast. To beat us…you must be kidding!" The Florida Warlocks have chapters in South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, New York, the United Kingdom and Germany. The Florida Warlocks were successfully infiltrated by the ATF in 1991 and again in 2003, with convictions for drug and weapon charges resulting from the latter.

Sons of Silence (1966-present)

The Sons of Silence was founded in Niwot, Colorado, in 1966. The club sports a distinctive patch featuring the American Eagle superimposed over a large "A" – highly reminiscent of the Anheuser-Busch logo. The gang's official motto is "Donec mors non separat" – Latin for "Until death separates us."

The Sons of Silence boast of chapters in Illinois, Wyoming, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Kentucky, North Dakota, Mississippi and Germany. The Sons of Silence have been implicated in drug trafficking and weapons violations.

Highwaymen (1954-present)

The Highwaymen was established in Detroit, Michigan, in 1954. The club's distinctive patch features a winged skeleton sporting a leather jacket, motorcycle cap and the black and silver colors. "Highwaymen forever, forever Highwaymen" serves as the gang's official motto.

The Highwaymen currently have chapters in Michigan, Tennessee, Florida, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Norway. The Highwaymen Motorcycle Club has been the subject of intense law enforcement scrutiny through the years. In 2007, the FBI arrested 40 Detroit Highwaymen members/associates on a variety of charges, including drug trafficking, theft, racketeering, insurance fraud, police corruption and murder for hire.

Gypsy Joker (1956-present)

The Gypsy Joker was founded in San Francisco, California, on April 1, 1956. The club's official patch features a grinning skull. Forced out of San Francisco by Hells Angels, the Gypsy Joker headed north to Oregon and Washington state in the late 1960s.

The Gypsy Joker has some 35 chapters worldwide, including active clubs in Australia, Germany, South Africa and Norway. The club is especially high profile in Australia, where in 2009 five Gypsy Jokers engaged in a drug-related shootout with a rival "bikie" gang (as they are called Down Under) in Perth.

Ten More Notorious Outlaw Biker Gangs

Here are ten more infamous biker gangs, along with where established and years active.

•Free Souls (Eugene, Oregon, 1968-present) •The Breed (Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1965-present) •Rebels (Brisbane, Australia, 1969-present) •Grim Reapers (Calgary, Canada, 1967-1997) •Iron Horsemen (Cincinnati, Ohio, mid-1960s-present) •The Finks (Adelaide, Australia, 1969-present) •Brother Speed (Boise, Idaho, 1969-present) •Devils Diciples (Fontana, California, 1967-present) •Solo Angeles (Tijuana, Mexico, 1959-present) •Diablos (San Bernardino, California, 1964-present) About William J. Felchner William J. Felchner's many feature articles have appeared in such periodicals as True West, Hot Rod, Movie Collector's World, Sports Collectors Digest, Persimmon Hill, Big Reel, Corvette Quarterly, Old West, Antiques & Auction News, Storyboard, Goldmine, Autograph Collector, Warman's Today's Collector, The Paper & Advertising Collectors'
Frontier Times, Television History, Illinois and Military Trader.

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