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Thursday, February 13, 2014

2012 National Gang Threat Assessment – Emerging Trends

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2011 National Gang Threat Assessment – Emerging Trends.jpg
Preface
The National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) prepared the 2012 National Gang Threat Assessment (NGTA) to examine emerging gang trends and threats posed by criminal gangs to communities throughout the United States. The 2012 NGTA enhances and builds on the gang-related trends and criminal threats identified in the 2009 assessment. It supports US Department of Justice strategic objectives 2.2 (to reduce the threat, incidence, and prevalence of violent crime) and 2.4 (to reduce the threat, trafficking, use, and related violence of illegal drugs). The assessment is based on federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement and corrections agency intelligence, including information and data provided by the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) and the National Gang Center. Additionally, this assessment is supplemented by information retrieved from open source documents and data collected through April 2012.
Scope and Methodology
In 2009, the NGIC released its second threat assessment on gang activity in the United States. The NGIC and its law enforcement partners documented increases in gang proliferation and migration nationwide and emerging threats. This report attempts to expand on these findings. Reporting and intelligence collected over the past two years have demonstrated increases in the number of gangs and gang members as law enforcement authorities nationwide continue to identify gang members and share information regarding these groups. Better reporting and collection has contributed greatly to the increased documentation and reporting of gang members and gang trends. 
Information in the 2012 National Gang Threat Assessment-Emerging Trends was derived from law enforcement intelligence, open source information, and data collected from the NDIC, including the 2010 NDIC National Drug Threat Survey (NDTS). NGIC law enforcement partners provided information and guidance regarding new trends and intelligence through an online request for information via the NGIC Law Enforcement Online (LEO) Special Interest Group (SIG), which is now NGIC Online. Law enforcement agencies nationwide continuously report new and emerging gang trends to the NGIC, as the NGIC continues to operate as a repository and dissemination hub for gang intelligence. This information provided by our law enforcement partners was used to identify many of the trends and issues included in this report. 
Reporting used to quantify the number of street and outlaw motorcycle gangs and gang members was primarily derived from the 2010 NDIC NDTS data and some supplemental NGIC reporting from our law enforcement partners. NDIC annually conducts the NDTS to collect data on the threat posed by various illicit drugs in the United States. A stratified random sample of nearly 3,500 state and local law enforcement agencies was surveyed to generate national, regional, and state estimates of various aspects of drug trafficking activities including the threat posed by various drugs, the availability and production of illicit drugs, as well as the role of street gangs and outlaw motorcycle gangs in drug trafficking activity. Weighted national, regional, and state-level statistical estimates derived from NDTS 2010 data was based on responses received from 2,963 law enforcement agencies out of a sample of 3,465 agencies. In calculating the number of street and outlaw motorcycle gang members, respondents in each region were asked to select from a series of ranges of numbers. The median numbers of each range were aggregated to generate an estimate for the total number of gang members. In calculating the number of street and outlaw motorcycle gangs, the low end of each range was aggregated to generate an estimate for the total number of gangs and gang members. Prison gang member estimates were derived directly from the US Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and state correctional institutions across the country.
About the NGIC
The NGIC was established by Congress in 2005 to support law enforcement agencies through timely and accurate information sharing and strategic/tactical analysis of federal, state, and local law enforcement information focusing on the growth, migration, criminal activity, and association of gangs that pose a significant threat to communities throughout the United States. The NGIC is comprised of representatives from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), US Bureau of Prisons (BOP), United States Marshals Service (USMS), US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), US Department of Defense (DOD), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), and US Customs and Border Protection (CBP). This multi-agency fusion center integrates gang intelligence assets to serve as a central intelligence resource for gang information and analytical support.
To assist in the sharing of gang intelligence with law enforcement, the NGIC has established NGIC Online, an information system comprised of a set of web-based tools designed for researching gang-related intelligence and sharing of information with federal, state, local and tribal law enforcement partners. The system’s Request for Information (RFI) portal encourages users to contribute new data as well as conduct gang research through custom threat assessments and/or liaison with NGIC’s network of national subject matter experts. NGIC Online functions include RFI submissions and responses; Gang Encyclopedia WIKI; General Intelligence Library; and a Signs, Symbols, and Tattoos (SST) database with user submissions.
Gang Definitions

Gang
Definition
Street

Street gangs are criminal organizations formed on the street operating throughout the United States.
Prison
Prison gangs are criminal organizations that originated within the penal system and operate within correctional facilities throughout the United States, although released members may be operating on the street. Prison gangs are also self-perpetuating criminal entities that can continue their criminal operations outside the confines of the penal system.
Outlaw Motorcycle (OMGs)
OMGs are organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises. Although some law enforcement agencies regard only One Percenters as OMGs, the NGIC, for the purpose of this assessment, covers all OMG criminal organizations, including OMG support and puppet clubs.
One Percenter
OMGs
ATF defines One Percenters as any group of motorcyclists who have voluntarily made a commitment to band together to abide by their organization’s rules enforced by violence and who engage in activities that bring them and their club into repeated and serious conflict with society and the law. The group must be an ongoing organization, association of three (3) or more persons which have a common interest and/or activity characterized by the commission of or involvement in a pattern of criminal or delinquent conduct. ATF estimates there are approximately 300 One Percenter OMGs in the United States.
Neighborhood/Local
Neighborhood or Local street gangs are confined to specific neighborhoods and jurisdictions and often imitate larger, more powerful national gangs. The primary purpose for many neighborhood gangs is drug distribution and sales.


Regional Breakdown:
Maps and data in this assessment are presented according to the FBI’s Safe Streets Gang Task Force regions.

Region
States
North Central

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin
Northeast
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia
South Central
Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas
Southeast
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Virginia
West
Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming


Executive Summary
Gangs continue to commit criminal activity, recruit new members in urban, suburban, and rural regions across the United States, and develop criminal associations that expand their influence over criminal enterprises, particularly street-level drug sales. The most notable trends for 2011 have been the overall increase in gang membership, and the expansion of criminal street gangs’ control of street-level drug sales and collaboration with rival gangs and other criminal organizations.a
Key Findings
Gangs are expanding, evolving and posing an increasing threat to US communities nationwide. Many gangs are sophisticated criminal networks with members who are violent, distribute wholesale quantities of drugs, and develop and maintain close working relationships with members and associates of transnational criminal/drug trafficking organizations. Gangs are becoming more violent while engaging in less typical and lower-risk crime, such as prostitution and white-collar crime. Gangs are more adaptable, organized, sophisticated, and opportunistic, exploiting new and advanced technology as a means to recruit, communicate discretely, target their rivals, and perpetuate their criminal activity. Based on state, local, and federal law enforcement reporting, the NGIC concludes that: 
  • There are approximately 1.4 million active street, prison, and OMG gang members comprising more than 33,000 gangs in the United States. Gang membership increased most significantly in the Northeast and Southeast regions, although the West and Great Lakes regions boast the highest number of gang members. Neighborhood-based gangs, hybrid gang members, and national-level gangs such as the Sureños are rapidly expanding in many jurisdictions. Many communities are also experiencing an increase in ethnic-based gangs such as African, Asian, Caribbean, and Eurasian gangs.
  • Gangs are responsible for an average of 48 percent of violent crime in most jurisdictions and up to 90 percent in several others, according to NGIC analysis. Major cities and suburban areas experience the most gang-related violence. Local neighborhood-based gangs and drug crews continue to pose the most significant criminal threat in most communities. Aggressive recruitment of juveniles and immigrants, alliances and conflict between gangs, the release of incarcerated gang members from prison, advancements in technology and communication, and Mexican Drug Trafficking Organization (MDTO) involvement in drug distribution have resulted in gang expansion and violence in a number of jurisdictions.
  • Gangs are increasingly engaging in non-traditional gang-related crime, such as alien smuggling, human trafficking, and prostitution. Gangs are also engaging in white collar crime such as counterfeiting, identity theft, and mortgage fraud, primarily due to the high profitability and much lower visibility and risk of detection and punishment than drug and weapons trafficking.
  • US-based gangs have established strong working relationships with Central American and MDTOs to perpetrate illicit cross-border activity, as well as with some organized crime groups in some regions of the United States. US-based gangs and MDTOs are establishing wide-reaching drug networks; assisting in the smuggling of drugs, weapons, and illegal immigrants along the Southwest Border; and serving as enforcers for MDTO interests on the US side of the border.
  • Many gang members continue to engage in gang activity while incarcerated. Family members play pivotal roles in assisting or facilitating gang activities and recruitment during a gang members’ incarceration. Gang members in some correctional facilities are adopting radical religious views while incarcerated.
  • Gangs encourage members, associates, and relatives to obtain law enforcement, judiciary, or legal employment in order to gather information on rival gangs and law enforcement operations. Gang infiltration of the military continues to pose a significant criminal threat, as members of at least 53 gangs have been identified on both domestic and international military installations. Gang members who learn advanced weaponry and combat techniques in the military are at risk of employing these skills on the street when they return to their communities.
  • Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement officers and civilians. Typically firearms are acquired through illegal purchases; straw purchases via surrogates or middle-men, and thefts from individuals, vehicles, residences and commercial establishments. Gang members also target military and law enforcement officials, facilities, and vehicles to obtain weapons, ammunition, body armor, police gear, badges, uniforms, and official identification.
  • Gangs on Indian Reservations often emulate national-level gangs and adopt names and identifiers from nationally recognized urban gangs. Gang members on some Indian Reservations are associating with gang members in the community to commit crime.
  • Gangs are becoming increasingly adaptable and sophisticated, employing new and advanced technology to facilitate criminal activity discreetly, enhance their criminal operations, and connect with other gang members, criminal organizations, and potential recruits nationwide and even worldwide.
Current Gang-Related Trends and Crime
Gang membership continues to expand throughout communities nationwide, as gangs evolve, adapt to new threats, and form new associations. Consequently, gang-related crime and violence is increasing as gangs employ violence and intimidation to control their territory and illicit operations. Many gangs have advanced beyond their traditional role as local retail drug distributors in large cities to become more organized, adaptable, and influential in large-scale drug trafficking. Gang members are migrating from urban areas to suburban and rural communities to recruit new members, expand their drug distribution territories, form new alliances, and collaborate with rival gangs and criminal organizations for profit and influence. Local neighborhood, hybrid and female gang membership is on the rise in many communities. Prison gang members, who exert control over many street gang members, often engage in crime and violence upon their return to the community. Gang members returning to the community from prison have an adverse and lasting impact on neighborhoods, which may experience notable increases in crime, violence, and drug trafficking.
Gang Membership and Expansion
Approximately 1.4 million active street, OMG, and prison gang members, comprising more than 33,000 gangs, are criminally active within all 50 US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico (see Appendix A). This represents a 40 percent increase from an estimated 1 million gang members in 2009. The NGIC attributes this increase in gang membership primarily to improved reporting, more aggressive recruitment efforts by gangs, the formation of new gangs, new opportunities for drug trafficking, and collaboration with rival gangs and drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). Law enforcement in several jurisdictions also attribute the increase in gang membership in their region to the gangster rap culture, the facilitation of communication and recruitment through the Internet and social media, the proliferation of generational gang members, and a shortage of resources to combat gangs.
More than half of NGIC law enforcement partners report an increase in gang-related criminal activity in their jurisdictions over the past two years. Neighborhood-based gangs continue to pose the greatest threat in most jurisdictions nationwide.
  • NGIC and NDIC data indicates that, since 2009, gang membership increased most significantly in the Northeast and Southeast regions, although the West and North Central regions—particularly Arizona, California, and Illinois—boast the highest number of gang members.

2011 Estimated Gang Membership

Members
Gangs
Street
1,140,344
30,313
OMG
44,108 
2,965
Prison
231,136**
n/a
Total
1,415,578
33,278
*Based on 2010 and 2011 NGIC and NDIC data
**Based on reporting from 32 states



2011 Estimated Street and OMG Membership by Region
North Central
260,022
Northeast
159,158
South Central
167,353
Southeast
117,205
West
480,715
Total
1,184,453
*Based on 2010 and 2011 NGIC and NDIC data


  • Sureño gangs, including Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13), 18th Street, and Florencia 13, are expanding faster than other national-level gangs, both in membership and geographically. Twenty states and the District of Columbia report an increase of Sureño migration into their region over the past three years. California has experienced a substantial migration of Sureño gangs into northern California and neighboring states, such as Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon.
  • Law enforcement reporting indicates a significant increase in OMGs in a number of jurisdictions, with 44,108 members nationwide comprising approximately 2,965 gangs.b Jurisdictions in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Missouri, Montana, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Virginia are experiencing the most significant increase in OMGs, increasing the potential for gang-related turf wars with other local OMGs. The Wheels of Soul (WOS), Mongols, Outlaws, Pagans and Vagos have expanded in several states.
Table 1. Recent Expansion of Major OMGs:

Gang
Region
Mongols
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Montana, Nevada, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Washington
Outlaws
Arkansas, Montana, Maryland, North Carolina, New York
Pagans
Delaware, New Jersey, Ohio
Vagos
California, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, New York,
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota
Wheels of Soul
Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New York

Source: ATF
Figure 1. Nationwide Gang Presence
ngic-ndic_usgangpresence06_11map
Source: NGIC and NDIC 2010 National Drug Survey Data
Chart 1. Threat Posed by Gangs, According to Law Enforcement.
The NGIC collected intelligence from law enforcement officials nationwide in an attempt to capture the threat posed by national-level street, prison, outlaw motorcycle, and neighborhood-based gangs in their communities.
nationwidethreatofgangs
Source: 2011 NGIC National data
Gang-Related Violent Crime
Gang-related crime and violence continues to rise. NGIC analysis indicates that gang members are responsible for an average of 48 percent of violent crime in most jurisdictions and much higher in others. Some jurisdictions in Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, and Texas report that gangs are responsible for at least 90 percent of crime. A comparison of FBI Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) 2009 violent crime data and 2010 NGIC gang data illustrates that regions experiencing the most violent crime—including southern California, Texas, and Florida—also have a substantial gang presence (see Figure 1 and Map 7). Street gangs are involved in a host of violent criminal activities, including assault, drug trafficking, extortion, firearms offenses, home invasion robberies, homicide, intimidation, shootings, and weapons trafficking. NDIC reporting indicates that gang control over drug distribution and disputes over drug territory has increased, which may be responsible for the increase in violence in many areas. Conflict between gangs, gang migration into rival gang territory, and the release of incarcerated gang members back into the community has also resulted in an increase in gang-related crime and violence in many jurisdictions, according to NGIC reporting.
Table 2. Percentage of Violent Crime Committed by Gangs as reported by NGIC Law Enforcement Partners

% of violent crime committed by gangs
% of LE Officials
1-25%
34.0%
26-50%
28.4%
51-75%
22.7%
76-100%
14.9%


Chart 2. Threat Posed by Gangs, as Reported by Law Enforcement.
The NGIC collected intelligence from its law enforcement partners nationwide in an effort to capture the criminal threat posed by national-level street, prison, outlaw motorcycle, and neighborhood-based gangs in their communities. The following chart represents the percentage of gang involvement in crime.
nationwideganginvolvement
Source: 2011 NGIC data
According to National Youth Gang Survey reporting, larger cities and suburban counties accounted for the majority of gang-related violence and more than 96 percent of all gang homicides in 2009.1 As previous studies have indicated, neighborhood-based gangs and drug crews continue to pose the most significant criminal threat in these regions.
  • Law enforcement officials in the Washington, DC metropolitan region are concerned about a spate of gang-related violence in their area. In February 2011, ICE officials indicted 11 MS-13 members for a two-year spree of murders, stabbings, assaults, robberies, and drug distribution. Likewise, gangs such as MS-13 and Bloods in Prince George’s County, Maryland, are suspected to be involved in up to 16 homicides since January 2011.2
  • USMS reported 5,705 gang-affiliated felony fugitives in 2010, a 14 percent increase from the number of gang fugitives in 2009. California and Texas report the highest number of gang fugitives, with 1,284 and 542 respectively.
Gang-Related Drug Distribution and Trafficking
Gang involvement and control of the retail drug trade poses a serious threat to public safety and stability in most major cities and in many mid-size cities because such distribution activities are routinely associated with lethal violence. Violent disputes over control of drug territory and enforcement of drug debts frequently occur among gangs in both urban and suburban areas, as gangs expand their control of drug distribution in many jurisdictions, according to NDIC and NGIC reporting. In 2010, law enforcement agencies in 51 major US cities reported moderate to significant levels of gang-related drug activity.
NDIC survey data indicates that 69 percent of US law enforcement agencies report gang involvement in drug distribution.
  • In June 2010, a joint federal-state law enforcement operation led to the arrest of eight people linked to a San Gabriel Valley street gang involved in violent crimes and methamphetamine trafficking in support of the California Mexican Mafia (La Eme).3
NDIC reporting suggests that gangs are advancing beyond their traditional role as local retail drug distributors in large cities and becoming more influential in large-scale drug trafficking, resulting in an increase in violent crime in several regions of the country.4
  • Law enforcement reporting indicates that gang-related drug distribution and trafficking has resulted in an increase of kidnappings, assaults, robberies and homicides along the US Southwest border region.
Gang involvement in drug trafficking has also resulted in the expansion and migration of some gangs into new US communities, according to NDIC reporting.
  • Gang members from the Midwest are migrating to southern states to expand their drug trafficking operations.
Figure 3. Major Cities Reporting Gang-Related Drug Activity in 2010 
Major Cities Reporting Gang-Related Drug Activity in 2010
Source: NDIC 2010 National Drug Threat Survey

Juvenile Gangs
Many jurisdictions are experiencing an increase in juvenile gangs and violencec, which is often attributed, in part, to the increased incarceration rates of older members and the aggressive recruitment of juveniles in schools. Gangs have traditionally targeted youths because of their vulnerability and susceptibility to recruitment tactics, as well as their likelihood of avoiding harsh criminal sentencing and willingness to engage in violence.
NGIC reporting indicates that juvenile gangs are responsible for a majority of crime in various jurisdictions in Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Washington.
  • Juvenile gang members in some communities are hosting parties and organizing special events which develop into opportunities for recruiting, drugs, sexual exploitation, and criminal activity.
  • Gangster Rap gangs, often comprised of juveniles, are forming and are being used to launder drug money through seemingly legitimate businesses, according to NGIC reporting.
Gang Alliances and Collaboration
Collaboration between rival gangs and criminal organizations and increased improvement in communications, transportation, and technology have enabled national-level gangs to expand and secure their criminal networks throughout the United States and in other countries. 
  • According to NGIC reporting, gang members in California are collaborating with members of rival gangs to further criminal activities such as drug distribution, prostitution of minors, and money laundering.
  • Gangs in the correctional system are committing crimes for other gangs in an effort to confuse and evade law enforcement. 
Gang Sophistication
Gang members are becoming more sophisticated in their structure and operations and are modifying their activity to minimize law enforcement scrutiny and circumvent gang enhancement laws. Gangs in several jurisdictions have modified or ceased traditional or stereotypical gang indicia and no longer display their colors, tattoos, or hand signs. Others are forming hybrid gangs to avoid police attention and make to it more difficult for law enforcement to identify and monitor them, according to NGIC reporting. Many gangs are engaging in more sophisticated criminal schemes, including white collar and cyber crime, targeting and infiltrating sensitive systems to gain access to sensitive areas or information, and targeting and monitoring law enforcement.
Expansion of Ethnic-Based and Non-Traditional Gangs
Law enforcement officials in jurisdictions nationwide report an expansion of African, Asian, Eurasian, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern gangs, according to NGIC reporting. Many communities are also experiencing increases in hybrid and non-traditional gangs.
Asian Gangs
Asian gangs, historically limited to regions with large Asian populations, are expanding throughout communities nationwide. Although often considered street gangs, Asian gangs operate similar to Asian Criminal Enterprises with a more structured organization and hierarchy. They are not turf-oriented like most African-American and Hispanic street gangs and typically maintain a low profile to avoid law enforcement scrutiny. Asian gang members are known to prey on their own race and often develop a relationship with their victims before victimizing them.5 Law enforcement officials have limited knowledge of Asian gangs and often have difficulty penetrating these gangs because of language barriers and gang distrust of non-Asians.6
Law enforcement officials in California, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Wisconsin report a significant increase in Asian gangs in their jurisdictions.
Asian gangs are involved in a host of criminal activities to include violent crime, drug and human trafficking, and white collar crime.
  • Asian gang members in New England and California maintain marijuana cultivation houses specifically for the manufacturing and distribution of high potency marijuana and pay members of the Asian community to reside in them, according to 2010 NDIC and open source reporting.7
Some law enforcement agencies attribute the recent increase in Asian gang membership in their jurisdictions to the recruitment of non-Asian members into the gang in order to compete more effectively with other street gangs for territory and dominance of illicit markets.
East African Gangs
Somali Gangs
Somali gang presence has increased in several cities throughout the United States. Somali gangs are most prevalent in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; San Diego, California; and Seattle, Washington areas, primarily as a result of proximity to the Mexican and Canadian borders, according to ICE, NGIC, and law enforcement reporting. Somali gang activity has also been reported in other cities throughout the United States such as Nashville, Tennessee; Clarkston, Georgia; Columbus, Ohio; East Brunswick, New Jersey; and Tucson, Arizona. Unlike most traditional street gangs, Somali gangs tend to align and adopt gang names based on clan or tribe, although a few have joined national gangs such as the Crips and Bloods. 
NGIC reporting indicates that East African gangs are present in at least 30 jurisdictions, including those in California, Georgia, Minnesota, Ohio, Texas, Virginia, and Washington.
Somalian gangs are involved in drug and weapons trafficking, human trafficking, credit card fraud, prostitution, and violent crime. Homicides involving Somali victims are often the result of clan feuds between gang members. Sex trafficking of females across jurisdictional and state borders for the purpose of prostitution is also a growing trend among Somalian gangs. 
Figure 4. Somali Outlaws set in Minneapolis, MN
mali_thug_boyz-under-somali-outlawz-minneapolis-pd-copy
Source: Minneapolis Police Department
  • In November 2010, 29 suspected Somalian gang members were indicted for a prostitution trafficking operation, according to open source reporting. Over a 10 year period, Somalian gang members transported underage females from Minnesota to Ohio and Tennessee for prostitution.8
  • In February 2009, five Somali gang members were arrested for murdering drug dealers in Dexter and Athens, Ohio, during home invasion robberies, according to law enforcement reporting.9
Although some Somali gangs adopt Bloods or Crips gang monikers, they typically do not associate with other African-American gangs. Somali nationals—mostly refugees displaced by the war(s) in Somalia and surrounding countries—tend to migrate to specific low-income communities, which are often heavily controlled by local Bloods and Crips street gangs. The Somali youth may emulate the local gangs, which frequently leads to friction with other gangs, such as Bloods and Crips, as well as with Ethiopian gangs.
Sudanese Gangs
Sudanese gangs in the United States have been expanding since 2003 and have been reported in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Tennessee. Some Sudanese gang members have weapons and tactical knowledge from their involvement in conflicts in their native country.
  • The African Pride (AP) gang is one of the most aggressive and dangerous of the Sudanese street gangs in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and North and South Dakota. 
Caribbean Gangs
Although largely confined to the East Coast, Caribbean gangs, such as Dominican, Haitian, and Jamaican gangs, are expanding in a number of communities throughout the United States. 
Dominican Gangs
The Trinitarios, the most rapidly-expanding Caribbean gang and the largest Dominican gang, are a violent prison gang with members operating on the street. The Trinitarios are involved in homicide, violent assaults, robbery, theft, home invasions, and street-level drug distribution. Although predominate in New York and New Jersey, the Trinitarios have expanded to communities throughout the eastern United States, including Georgia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. Dominicans Don’t Play (DDP), the second largest Dominican gang based in Bronx, New York, are known for their violent machete attacks and drug trafficking activities in Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.
An increase in the Dominican population in several eastern US jurisdictions has resulted in the expansion and migration of Dominican gangs such as the Trinitarios. This has led to an increase in drug trafficking, robberies, violent assaults in the Tri-state area. 
Figure 5. Trinitarios Insignia
trinitarios_picture_-atf_file_photo_www_myspace_com_14_sept_2010-a

Source: ATF
Haitian Gangs
Haitian gangs, such as the Florida-based Zoe Pound, have proliferated in many states primarily along the East Coast in recent years according to NGIC reporting. According to NGIC reporting, Haitian gangs are present in Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas.
  • The Zoe Pound gang, a street gang founded in Miami, Florida by Haitian immigrants in the United States, is involved in drug trafficking, robbery, and related violent crime. In February 2010, 22 suspected Zoe Pound members in Chicago, Illinois, were charged with possession of and conspiracy to traffic powder and crack cocaine from Illinois to Florida, according to FBI reporting.10
  • The Haitian Boys Posse and Custer Street Gang are involved in a myriad of criminal activities including drug and weapons trafficking, robberies, shootings and homicides along the East Coast.

Trinitario members arrested for drug and firearms violations
In August 2010, the FBI arrested three Rhode Island Trinitario members for conspiracy to distribute MDMA and firearms violations. Seventeen other Trinitario members also allegedly collected money to buy weapons, hire lawyers, and aid members (brothers) in prison.
Source: DOJ: District of Rhode Island, August 26, 2010


Jamaican Gangs
Traditional Jamaican gangs operating in the United States are generally unsophisticated and lack a significant hierarchical structure, unlike gangs in Jamaica. Many active Jamaican gangs operating in the United States maintain ties to larger criminal organizations and gangs in Jamaica, such as the Shower Posse or the Spangler Posse. Jamaican gang members in the United States engage in drug and weapons trafficking.
NGIC reporting indicates that Jamaican gangs are most active in California, Maryland, Missouri, and New Jersey.
Non-Traditional Gangs
Hybrid Gangs
The expansion of hybrid gangs—non-traditional gangs with multiple affiliations—is a continued phenomenon in many jurisdictions nationwide. Because of their multiple affiliations, ethnicities, migratory nature, and nebulous structure, hybrid gangs are difficult to track, identify, and target as they are transient and continuously evolving. Furthermore, these multi-ethnic, mixed-gender gangs pose a unique challenge to law enforcement because they are adopting national symbols and gang members often crossover from gang to gang. Hybrid gangs are of particular concern to law enforcement because members often escalate their criminal activity in order to gain attention and respect.
Hybrid gangs, which are present in at least 25 states, are fluid in size and structure, yet tend to adopt similar characteristics of larger urban gangs, including their own identifiers, rules, and recruiting methods.11 Like most street gangs, hybrid gang members commit a multitude of street and violent crime.12 Law enforcement reporting suggests that hybrid gangs have evolved from neighborhood crews that formed to expand drug trafficking, or from an absence of or loyalty to nationally recognized gangs in their region.
  • Law enforcement officials in many jurisdictions nationwide report an increase in juvenile gang membership and violent crime among hybrid and local gangs, according to 2010 NGIC reporting.
  • NGIC reporting indicates that hybrid gangs are dominating nationally recognized gangs in some jurisdictions and merging with other gangs to expand their membership.
Juggalos
The Juggalos, a loosely-organized hybrid gang, are rapidly expanding into many US communities. Although recognized as a gang in only four states, many Juggalos subsets exhibit gang-like behavior and engage in criminal activity and violence. Law enforcement officials in at least 21 states have identified criminal Juggalo sub-sets, according to NGIC reporting.d

Hybrid and Almighty Latin King Nation (ALKN) Gang Members Arrested on Drug Charges
In November 2010, hybrid gang members in Pontiac, Michigan, known the “New World Order,” were charged along with members of the ALKN for numerous drug offenses. Several guns, drugs, dozens of cell phones and $10,000 in cash were
seized by FBI, DEA and local police departments. Many of the gang members arrested were juveniles and young adults.

Source: Online article “7 Members of 2 Gangs n Pontiac Face Drug charges” MyFoxdetroit.com; November 14, 2010

  • NGIC reporting indicates that Juggalo gangs are expanding in New Mexico primarily because they are attracted to the tribal and cultural traditions of the Native Americans residing nearby.
Most crimes committed by Juggalos are sporadic, disorganized, individualistic, and often involve simple assault, personal drug use and possession, petty theft, and vandalism. However, open source reporting suggests that a small number of Juggalos are forming more organized subsets and engaging in more gang-like criminal activity, such as felony assaults, thefts, robberies, and drug sales. Social networking websites are a popular conveyance for Juggalo sub-culture to communicate and expand.
  • In January 2011, a suspected Juggalo member shot and wounded a couple in King County, Washington, according to open source reporting.13
Juggalos’ disorganization and lack of structure within their groups, coupled with their transient nature, makes it difficult to classify them and identify their members and migration patterns. Many criminal Juggalo sub-sets are comprised of transient or homeless individuals, according to law enforcement reporting. Most Juggalo criminal groups are not motivated to migrate based upon traditional needs of a gang. However, law enforcement reporting suggests that Juggalo criminal activity has increased over the past several years and has expanded to several other states. Transient, criminal Juggalo groups pose a threat to communities due to the potential for violence, drug use/sales, and their general destructive and violent nature.

Juggalos
Although law enforcement officials in Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Washington report the most Juggalo gang-related criminal activity, Juggalos are present in Colorado, Delaware,
Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, according to NGIC reporting.

  • In January 2010, two suspected Juggalo associates were charged with beating and robbing an elderly homeless man.14
Figure 6. Juggalo member
juggalette-with_possible_firearm_-atf_file_photo_www_red-alerts.com_28_sept_2010

Source: ATF


Gangs and Alien Smuggling, Human Trafficking, and Prostitution
Gang involvement in alien smuggling, human trafficking, and prostitution is increasing primarily due to their higher profitability and lower risks of detection and punishment than that of drug and weapons trafficking. Over the past year, federal, state, and local law enforcement officials in at least 35 states and US territories have reported that gangs in their jurisdictions are involved in alien smuggling, human trafficking, or prostitution.e
Alien Smuggling
Many street gangs are becoming involved in alien smuggling as a source of revenue. According to US law enforcement officials, tremendous incentive exists for gangs to diversify their criminal enterprises to include alien smuggling, which can be more lucrative and less risky than the illicit drug trade. Over the past two years numerous federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies nationwide have reported gang involvement in incidents of alien smuggling. In some instances, gang members were among those being smuggled across the border into the United States following deportation. In other cases, gang members facilitated the movement of migrants across the US-Mexico border.f

Increasing Coordination between Mexican Drug Cartels, Alien Smuggling Networks, and US-Based Gangs
Federal, state, and local law enforcement officials are observing a growing nexus between the Mexican drug cartels, illegal alien smuggling rings, and US-based gangs. The alien smuggling networks that operate along the Southwest border are unable to move human cargo through drug cartel controlled corridors without paying a fee. The typical Mexican illegal alien now pays approximately $1,200 to $2,500 for entry into the United States. The fee is considerably higher for aliens smuggled from countries other than Mexico, which may even be more alluring for the cartels. It is estimated that criminals earn billions of dollars each year by smuggling aliens through Mexico into the United States.
Source: House Committee on Homeland Security, US Congress


Figure 7. An immigrant is smuggled in a vehicle
human-smuggling-discovered-during-a-vehicle-search-near-the-border-www.fbi.gov
Source: FBI

Human Trafficking Global Statistics
  • 18,000 to 20,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States each year.
  • 12.3 million worldwide victims of forced labor, bonded labor, and prostitution.
  • 1.2 million worldwide victims are children; 1.4 million are victims of commercial sexual exploitation, of which 98% are women and girls.
  • 32% of the victims are used for forced
    economic exploitation, of which 56% are women and girls
Sources: US Dept. of State TIP Report 2010; UN GIFT Global Report on TIP Feb. 2010


The Barrio Azteca, Mexican Mafia, MS-13, 18th Street Gang, and Somali gangs have all reportedly been involved in alien smuggling, according to NGIC and law enforcement reporting.
  • In October 2009, ICE agents in Los Angeles, California, arrested suspects linked to a drug trafficking and alien smuggling ring with close ties to the Drew Street clique of the Avenues (Sureño) street gang in Los Angeles. The ring allegedly smuggled more than 200 illegal aliens per year into the United States from Mexico, concealing them in trucks and hidden compartments of vehicles and then hiding them in a store house in Los Angeles (See Figure 8).15
Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is another source of revenue for some gangs. Victims—typically women and children—are often forced, coerced, or led with fraudulent pretense into prostitution and forced labor.16 The Bloods, MS-13, Sureños, and Somali gangs have been reportedly involved in human trafficking, according to multiple law enforcement and NGIC reporting.
  • Some gangs in the New England area are combining human trafficking and drug trafficking operations, where females are used to courier drugs and participate in prostitution.
  • In November 2010, federal law enforcement officials indicted 29 members of a Somalian gang in Minneapolis for operating an interstate sex trafficking ring that sold and transported underage African-American and Somalian females from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Columbus, Ohio, and Nashville, Tennessee, for prostitution, according to FBI and ICE reporting.17
Prostitution
Prostitution is also a major source of income for many gangs. Gang members often operate as pimps, luring or forcing at-risk, young females into prostitution and controlling them through violence and psychological abuse.g Asian gangs, Bloods, Crips, Gangster Disciples, MS-13, Sureños, Vice Lords, and members of OMGs are involved in prostitution operations, according to FBI, NGIC, and multiple law enforcement reporting. 
NGIC law enforcement partners report that gangs in their jurisdiction are involved in prostitution, some of which involves child prostitution.
  • Prostitution is reportedly the second largest source of income for San Diego, California, gangs. According to November 2010 open source reporting, African-American street gangs in San Diego are pimping young females to solicit males.18
Gangs and Criminal Organizations
Gangs & Drug Trafficking Organizations
Many US-based gangs have established strong working relationships with Central America and Mexico-based DTOs to perpetuate the smuggling of drugs across the US-Mexico and US-Canada borders. MDTOs control most of the cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana trafficked into the United States from Mexico and regularly employ lethal force to protect their drug shipments in Mexico and while crossing the US-Mexico border, according to NGIC and NDIC reporting.h
Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations
MDTOs are among the most prominent DTOs largely because of their control over the production of most drugs consumed in the United States. They are known to regularly collaborate with US-based street and prison gang members and occasionally work with select OMG and White Supremacist groups, purely for financial gain (see Appendix B). The prospect of financial gain is resulting in the suspension of traditional racial and ideological division among US prison gangs, providing MDTOs the means to further expand their influence over drug trafficking in the United States.19 NDIC reporting indicates that Hispanic and African American street gangs are expanding their influence over drug distribution in rural and suburban areas and acquire drugs directly from MDTOs in Mexico or along the Southwest border.20

Many Los Angeles-based Sinaloa cartel members use local gang members to assist in or commit kidnappings, acquire or sell drugs, and collect drug proceeds.

Source: DHS September 2010; DEA November 2010


NGIC law enforcement partners report that gangs in their jurisdiction have ties to Mexican criminal organizations, such as MDTOs.
  • Well-established US prison gangs such as the Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos (HPL), La Eme, the Texas Syndicate, Barrio Azteca and the Tango Blast are reportedly aligned with or connected to MDTOs.
  • NDIC reporting indicates that street gangs such as the Latin Kings, MS-13, Sureños, and Norteños maintain working relationships with MDTOs.21 Sureños in California and South Carolina maintain an association with the Los Zetas Cartel in Mexico, according to 2010 NGIC reporting.
  • According to 2010 California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) and open source reporting, some Aryan Brotherhood and La Eme prison gang members—bitter rivals inside prison—work together with MDTOs to smuggle drugs into California and prisons, steal vehicles, smuggle illegal weapons into Mexico, and intimidate rivals of the Mexican cartels.22

US-Based Gangs with Ties to MDTOs
Arizona New Mexican
Mafia
Aryan Brotherhood
Avenues
Bandidos
Barrio Azteca
Barrio Westside
Black Guerilla Family
Bloods
California Mexican
Mafia (Eme)
Crips
Hardtimes 13
Happytown Pomona
Hells Angels
Hermanos de
Pistoleros Latinos
(HPL)
La Nuestra Familia
Latin Kings
Lennox 13
Mara Salvatrucha
(MS-13)
Mexican Mafia
Mongols
Norteños
Satins Disciples
Sureños
Tango Blast
Texas Mexican Mafia
(Mexikanemi)
Texas Syndicate
Tri-City Bombers
Vagos
Vatos Locos
Westside Nogalitas
Wetback Power
Wonder Boys
18th Street Gang



Figure 8. Mexican Drug Cartels
5-17-10_mexican-drug-cartels-map
Source: Stratfor Global Intelligence
MDTOs contract with street and prison gangs along the Southwest border to enforce and secure smuggling operations in Mexico and the United States, particularly in California and Texas border communities.23 Gang members who are US citizens are valuable to MDTOs, as they can generally cross the US-Mexico border with less law enforcement scrutiny and are therefore less likely to have illicit drug loads interdicted.24 MDTOs use street and prison gang members in Mexico, Texas, and California to protect smuggling routes, collect debts, transport illicit goods, including drugs and weapons, and execute rival traffickers.25 Many of these crimes are committed in exchange for money and drugs, and as a result, street and prison gangs in the United States have gained greater control over drug distribution in rural and suburban areas. Gang members, including Barrio Azteca, MS-13 and Sureños have been intercepted driving with weapons and currency toward Mexico from such states as California, Colorado, Georgia, and Texas according to open source reporting.

Major Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations
Arellano Felix
Beltran Leyva
Vicente Carrillo-
Fuentes
Gulf Cartel
Los Zetas
Sinaloa
La Familia
Michoacana


Gangs’ increased collaboration with MDTOs has altered the dynamics of the drug trade at the wholesale level. US gangs, which traditionally served as the primary organized retail or mid-level distributor of drugs in most major US cities, are now purchasing drugs directly from the cartels, thereby eliminating the mid-level wholesale dealer. Furthermore, advanced technology, such as wireless Internet and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) capabilities, has made the recruitment, collaboration, and coordination of criminal activity more efficient and lucrative, and allows direct contact between the gangs and DTOs.26 To increase their control over drug trafficking in smaller markets, street gangs have acquired large wholesale quantities of drugs at lower prices directly from DTOs in Mexico and along the US Southwest border.27
  • Recent intelligence indicates that the MDTO La Familia Michoacana has established US-based command-and-control groups which report to leaders in Mexico who manage street-level distribution in US cities.28
Gangs and Organized Criminal Groups
January 2010 FBI reporting indicates that some OMGs and street gangs are closely collaborating with African, Asian, Eurasian, and Italian organized criminal groups to facilitate street-level crimes such as extortion, enforcement, debt collection, and money laundering.
  • In May 2010, New Jersey authorities indicted 34 members of the Lucchese crime family on racketeering, weapons offenses, bribery, money laundering, and conspiracy charges. The investigation revealed that members of the Lucchese family in New Jersey were working with the Nine Trey Gangster Bloods to smuggle drugs and cell phones into the East Jersey State Prison for fellow inmates, according to open source reporting.29
NGIC reporting indicates that some gangs are suspected of associating with African, Asian, and Eurasian criminal groups in California and Washington.i
  • Law enforcement officials in Washington suspect that some Asian gangs, including the Oriental Boyz and the Tiny Rascal Gangsters, are involved with Asian organized crime and marijuana cultivating groups.
  • In February 2011, authorities in southern California charged 99 Armenian Power gang members with kidnapping, extortion, bank fraud, and drug trafficking. Armenian Power members reportedly have ties to high-level crime figures in Armenia, Russia, and Georgia.30

Chart 3. Gang Associations with Criminal Organizations.
The NGIC collected intelligence from law enforcement officials nationwide in an effort to identify associations between gangs and criminal organizations. The following figures represent the percentage of law enforcement who report that gangs in their jurisdiction have ties to various criminal organizations.
gang-associations
Gangs and Corrections Issues
Prison gang-related crime and violence in the nation’s corrections system poses a significant threat to facility employees and a growing threat in many communities. Once incarcerated, most street gang members join an established prison gang to ensure their protection. Based on data provided by federal and state correctional agencies, the NGIC estimates that there are approximately 231,136 gang members incarcerated in federal and state prisons nationwide. Their large numbers and dominant presence allows prison gangs to employ bribery, intimidation, and violence to exert influence and control over many correctional facilities. Violent disputes over control of drug territory and enforcement of drug debts frequently occur among incarcerated gang members.
Figure 9. A US prison yard
prison-yard
Prison/Street Gang Connections
Many incarcerated gang members continue to engage in gang activities following incarceration and use their connections inside prison to commit crime in the community. Prison gang members influence and control gang activity on the street, and exploit street gangs for money and other resources.
Figure 10. Incarcerated MS-13 Members
ms13-in-prison
Law enforcement officials report associations between street gang members and incarcerated gang members in their area.
  • MS-13 members send funds not only to gang members on the street and in prison, but also to gang members in El Salvador, according to NGIC reporting.
Prison/Family Connection
A gang member’s incarceration often prompts his or her family to move closer to the correctional facility where the gang member is being housed. In some cases, family members assist or facilitate gang criminal activity and recruiting.
Family members of gangs operate as outside facilitators, serving as messengers, drug couriers, or in any capacity benefiting the gang. Outside facilitators are provided instructions by the incarcerated gang member, often during a social or legal visit, and in turn pass this information to gang members on the streets. Family members have also been used to assist prison escapes and smuggle contraband into correctional facilities, allowing incarcerated gang members to continue their operations inside prison.

Gangs in Contact with Incarcerated
Gang Members
18th Street
415 Kumi
Arizona New Mexican
Mafia
Aryan Brotherhood
Aryan Brotherhood of
Texas
Aryan Circle
Bandidos
Barrio Azteca
Black Guerilla Family
Black Gangster
Disciples
Black P-Stone Nation
Bloods
California Mexican
Mafia
Colorado Aryan
Brotherhood
Crips
Dead Man Inc.
Dirty White Boys
Gangster Disciples
(GD)
Grupo 25 (G-25)
Grupo 27 (G-27)
Hells Angels (MC)
Hermanos de
Pistoleros Latinos
(HPL)
La Nuestra Familia
Latin Kings
Los Carnales
MS-13
Nazi Low Riders
Ñetas
Norteños
Northern Riders
Northern Structure
Outlaws
Paisas
Raza Unida
Simon City Royals
Skinheads
Sureños
Syndicato De Nuevo
Mexico
Texas Chicano
Brotherhood
Texas Mexican Mafia
(Mexikanemi-EMI)
Texas Syndicate
United Blood Nation
Valluco Tango Blast
Vice Lords
West Texas Tangos


Communication
Incarcerated gang members often rely on family, friends, corrupt lawyers and corrections personnel to transmit their messages to gang members on the street. Incarcerated gang members exploit attorney-client privileges, which include unmonitored visiting and legal mail, to pass coded or concealed communications.j
Contraband Cell Phones
Smuggled cell phones are a continuing problem for prison administrators in correctional facilities throughout the country. Smuggled cell phones and Smart Phones afford incarcerated gang members more influence and control over street gangs through unrestricted access and unmonitored conversations via voice calling, Internet access, text messaging, email, and social networking websites. Instances of violence directed by inmates using mobile devices are also a growing concern for corrections officials. Incarcerated gang members communicate covertly with illegal cell phones to plan or direct criminal activities such as drug distribution, assault, and murder.
Cell phones smuggled into correctional facilities pose the greatest threat to institution safety, according to NGIC and BOP reporting.
  • In 2010 a New Jersey inmate was prosecuted for using a contraband cell phone to order the murder of his former girlfriend in retaliation for her cooperation with police regarding an investigation involving the inmate.31

Illegal Cell Phones in California Prisons
The majority of illegal cell phones in California prisons are smuggled in by visitors or correctional staff. Many cell phones have also been discovered
in legal mail and quarterly packages. In 2010, more than 10,000 illegal cell phones were confiscated from prisoners in California.

Historically, correctional staff who have been caught smuggling phones have been successfully prosecuted only when the phone was connected to a more serious charge such as drug distribution,
and district attorney offices rarely prosecute unless a more serious offense is involved. In March 2011, legislation was approved in the California State Senate to criminalize the use of cell phones in prison, including penalties for both smugglers and inmates.

Sources: US Bureau of Prisons and CDCR; California State Senate Press Release, 22 March 2011

  • In March 2010, an off-duty captain in the South Carolina Department of Corrections was shot in his home by an armed intruder. Although the captain survived, the assault had been ordered by a South Carolina inmate using a smuggled cell phone.32
Leadership
Gang members who have been incarcerated are often more respected on the streets by younger gang members, which makes it easier to establish or re-establish themselves in leadership positions and order younger gang members to commit crimes.k These gang leaders also use connections made in prison to establish contacts and criminal networks in the community, which allows them to more successfully control gang operations. Also, in the wake of leadership disorganization at the street level due to indictments and arrests, a released gang member may find it easy to use his influence and status as an ‘original gangster’ (OG) or Veterano to assume control of the gang.
Law enforcement officials report that released prison gang members in some jurisdictions are establishing or re-establishing leadership roles or active roles in local gangs.
Prison Radicalization
Gang members’ vulnerability to radicalization and recruitment for involvement in international or domestic terrorism organizations is a growing concern to law enforcement. Gang members’ perceptions of disenfranchisement from or rejection of mainstream society and resentment towards authority makes them more susceptible to joining such groups and can be attractive and easy targets for radicalization by extremist groups.
NGIC reporting indicates that incarcerated gang members in some jurisdictions are adopting radical religious views in prison.
Prison gangs that tend to be dedicated to political or social issues are often more susceptible to influence by extremist ideologies. In some instances, prison gang members may even emulate various terrorist movements by embracing their symbolism and ideology to enhance the gang’s own militant image within the prison setting.
Prison and street gang members are also susceptible on an individual basis to radicalization. Various correctional agencies have reported individual members of the Black Peace Stones, Crips, Latin Kings, and Insane Latin Disciples embracing radical ideologies.
Gang Infiltration of Corrections, Law Enforcement, and Government
Gang infiltration of law enforcement, government, and correctional agencies poses a significant security threat due to the access criminals have to sensitive information pertaining to investigations or protected persons. Gang members serving in law enforcement agencies and correctional facilities may compromise security and criminal investigations and operations, while acquiring knowledge and training in police tactics and weapons. Corrupt law enforcement officers and correctional staff have assisted gang members in committing crimes and have impeded investigations.
NGIC reporting indicates that gang members in at least 57 jurisdictions, including California, Florida, Tennessee, and Virginia, have applied for or gained employment within judicial, police, or correctional agencies.
  • A Crip gang member applied for a law enforcement position in Oklahoma.
  • OMGs engage in routine and systematic exploitation and infiltration of law enforcement and government infrastructures to protect and perpetrate their criminal activities. OMGs regularly solicit information of intelligence value from government or law enforcement employees.
NGIC reporting indicates that gang members in at least 72 jurisdictions have compromised or corrupted judicial, law enforcement, or correctional staff within the past three years.
  • In November 2010, a parole worker in New York was suspended for relaying confidential information to a Bloods gang member in Albany, according to open source reporting.33
  • In July 2010, a Riverside County, California detention center sheriff deputy was convicted of assisting her incarcerated Eme boyfriend with murdering two witnesses in her boyfriend’s case.34
  • In April 2010, a former Berwyn, Illinois police officer pleaded guilty to charges of conspiracy to commit racketeering and to obstruct justice for his part in assisting an OMG member in targeting and burglarizing rival businesses.35
Gangs and Indian Country
Native American gang presence has increased on Indian Reservations and in federal and state prison systems throughout the United States over the past few years, according to Bureau of Justice Statistics reporting.36,l Native American gang members, operating on numerous reservations throughout the United States, are emulating Hispanic gangs such as the Barrio Aztecas, Norteños, and Sureños; African American gangs such as the Bloods and Crips; and predominately Caucasian gangs such as the Juggalos. Some gangs, such as the Native Mob and Native Pride—which primarily operates in North Dakota, Minnesota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin—formed in the prison system and then expanded to reservations, according to NGIC reporting. Although most gangs in Indian Country are disorganized, lack significant structure and ties to national-level gangs, and are incapable of attaining control over large geographic areas or populations, some are involved in serious crimes and violent activities and utilize Indian Reservations to facilitate and expand their drug operations.

Indian Country and the US Border
The shared international border and geography of some Indian Reservations make it conducive to cross-border drug trafficking activity while also inhibiting interdiction efforts. Increased security at US/Mexican borders has resulted in the discovery of illicit marijuana farms from
California to South Dakota, primarily operated by Mexican gangs. Tighter border security makes it difficult for MDTOs to smuggle marijuana north thus raising the price of marijuana in the United States higher than in Mexico. Marijuana (stems and leaves) grown in Mexico costs $500 to $700 per pound, whereas a pound of marijuana grown in Washington State can cost $2,500 to $6,000 when sold on the East Coast.

Online News Article; The Wall Street Journal; “Mexican Pot Gangs Infiltrate Indian Reservations in US;” 5 November 2009; available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125736987377028727.html.


The growth of gangs on Indian Reservations is heavily influenced by the urban gang culture and media attention. Gang members on Indian Reservations often emulate national-level gangs and adopt names and identifiers from nationally recognized urban gangs. However, emulation is most often limited to identifiers—colors, signs, symbols, names—and leadership structure is often loosely organized or absent. NGIC reporting indicates that national-level gangs such as the Barrio Azteca, Bloods, Crips, Mexican Mafia, and Norteños are operating on a number of Indian Reservations. Native American gang members on reservations are also involved in gang-related activity with gang members in communities outside of reservations.
NGIC reporting indicates that urban gangs such as the Norteños and Sureños associate and/or influence the gang culture on several Indian Reservations.
In some jurisdictions, Native American gang members are associated with or involved in gang-related criminal activity with gang members off the reservation, including drug distribution, money laundering, assaults, and intimidation. Partnerships are often established for financial gain, drug distribution, and to evade law enforcement.
Figure 12. Graffiti on Ft. Apache-San Carlos Indian Reservation
indian-country-threat-assessment-032-ft-apache-san-carlos
Source: FBI
  • The Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon is becoming an ideal location for illicit marijuana farms because of its fertile grounds and isolated location. Within the past few years authorities have seized at least 12,000 harvested adult marijuana plants with an estimated street value of $10 million.37
Geography, as well as the extent of law enforcement monitoring of the reservations, make some Indian Reservations conducive to cross-border drug trafficking.
  • As much as 20 percent of all high-potency marijuana produced in Canada each year is smuggled through the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation in New York, according to NDIC reporting.
  • Marijuana produced in Mexico is transported by MDTOs through the Tohono O’odham Reservation in Arizona largely due to the 75 miles of lightly patrolled border with Mexico, according to NDIC reporting.
Gangs and the Military
Gang recruitment of active duty military personnel constitutes a significant criminal threat to the US military. Members of nearly every major street gang, as well as some prison gangs and OMGs, have been reported on both domestic and international military installations, according to NGIC analysis and multiple law enforcement reporting. Through transfers and deployments, military-affiliated gang members expand their culture and operations to new regions nationwide and worldwide, undermining security and law enforcement efforts to combat crime. Gang members with military training pose a unique threat to law enforcement personnel because of their distinctive weapons and combat training skills and their ability to transfer these skills to fellow gang members.
NGIC reporting indicates that law enforcement officials in at least 100 jurisdictions have come into contact with, detained, or arrested an active duty or former military gang member within the past three years.
  • Gang members have been reported in every branch of the US militarym, although a large proportion of these gang members and dependent gang members of military personnel are affiliated with the US Army, Army Reserves, and National Guard branches.
Figure 13. ‘Support your local Hells Angels’ graffiti on military vehicle in Iraq
support81iraq
Source: FBI
Figure 14. A soldier in a combat zone throwing gang signs
brianrodriguez_in_baghdad
Source: FBI
Many street gang members join the military to escape the gang lifestyle or as an alternative to incarceration, but often revert back to their gang associations once they encounter other gang members in the military. Other gangs target the US military and defense systems to expand their territory, facilitate criminal activity such as weapons and drug trafficking, or to receive weapons and combat training that they may transfer back to their gang. Incidents of weapons theft and trafficking may have a negative impact on public safety or pose a threat to law enforcement officials.
As of April 2011, the NGIC has identified members of at least 53 gangs whose members have served in or are affiliated with US military. Among the identified gangs with military-trained members are street gangs such as the Asian Boyz, Bloods, Crips, Gangster Disciples, Latin Kings, MS-13, Sureños, Tiny Rascal Gangsters, and the Juggalos; the Aryan Brotherhood, Barrio Azteca, and Texas Syndicate prison gangs; and OMGs including the Bandidos, Hells Angels, Mongols, Outlaws, and Vagos. Some gangs, particularly OMGs, actively recruit members with military training or advise members without criminal records to join the military for necessary weapons and combat training.
  • Younger gang members without criminal records are attempting to join the military, as well as concealing tattoos and gang affiliation during the recruitment process, according to NGIC reporting.
Deployments have resulted in integrating gang members with service members and/or dependents on or near overseas military installations, including those in Afghanistan, Germany, Iraq, Italy, Japan, and South Korea. US military officials have reported a rise in gang graffiti both on and off post in Afghanistan and Iraq (see Figure 14).
Table 3. Gangs with Members Who have Served in the US Military

Gang Name
Type
Military Branch(s)
18th Street Gang
Street
Army, Marines, Navy
Aryan Brotherhood
Prison
Army, Marines, Navy
Asian Boyz
Street
Army
Asian Crips
Street
Army
Avenues Gang
Street
Marines
Bandidos
OMG
Army, Marines
Barrio Azteca
Prison
Marines
Black Disciples
Street
Army, Marines, Navy
Black Guerilla Family*
Prison
Army
Bloods
Street
Army, Army Reserves, Coast Guard, Marines, Navy
Brotherhood
OMG
Marines
Crips
Street
Army, Air Force, Marines, Navy
Devils Disciples
OMG
Unknown
East Side Longos
Street
Army, Special Forces
Florencia 13
Street
Army, Marines
Fresno Bulldogs
Street
National Guard, Marines
Gangster Disciples
Street
Army, Marines, Navy, National Guard
Georgia Boys (Folk Nation)
Street
Army
Haitian Mob
Street
Army
Hells Angels
OMG
All branches
Iron Horsemen
OMG
Army
Juggalos/ICP
Street
Army, Air Force
Korean Dragon Family
Street
Marines
Latin Kings
Street
Army, Army Reserves, Marines, Navy
Legion of Doom
OMG
Air Force
Life is War
Street
Army
Los Zetas
Street
Army
Maniac Latin Disciples
Street
Marines
Mexican Posse 13
Street
Army
Military Misfits
OMG
Marines, Navy
Molochs
OMG
Marines
Mongols
OMG
Marines, Navy
Moorish Nation
Separatist
Army
MS-13
Street
Army, Marines, Navy
Norteños
Street
Army, Marines, National Guard, Navy
Outlaws
OMG
All branches
Peckerwoods
Street
Marines, Navy, National Guard, Reserves
Red Devils
OMG
Army/ Coast Guard
Simon City Royals
Street
Navy
Sons of Hell
OMG
Marines
Sons of Samoa
Street
Army
Southside Locos
Street
Army
Sureños
Street
Army, Marines, Navy
Tango Blast
Prison
Army*
Texas Syndicate
Prison
Army, Marines
Tiny Rascal Gangsters
Street
Army
United Blood Nation
Street
Army
Vagos
OMG
Army, Marines, Navy
Vatos Locos
Street
Army
Vice Lords
Street
Army
Wah Ching Gang
Street
Army
Warlocks
OMG
Air Force, Marines


* Only gang graffiti was identified
Gangs and the US Border
Figure 15. The Southwest Border Region
swb-map
Source: America.gov
The Southwest Border
The US Southwest Border regionn represents a continuing criminal threat to the United States. The rugged, rural, and porous area along the nearly 2,000 miles of contiguous US-Mexican territory invites widespread criminal activity, including drug and arms trafficking, alien smuggling, human trafficking, extortion, kidnapping, and public corruption. US-based gangs, MDTOs, and other criminal enterprises in both the United States and Mexico are readily exploiting this fluid region and incur enormous profit by establishing wide-reaching drug networks; assisting in the smuggling drugs, arms, and illegal immigrants; and serving as enforcers for MDTO interests on the US side of the border.  
Violence in Mexico—particularly in its northern border states—has escalated with over 34,000 murders committed in Mexico over the past four years.38 While intensified scrutiny from Mexican law enforcement has forced significant disruptions in several dangerous MDTOs, such disruptions have also served to disrupt the balance of power among these organizations. This has prompted drug cartel rivalries to employ more aggressive tactics as they attempt to assert control over the Southwest border region and its highly lucrative drug trafficking corridors.39 Although the majority of the violence from feuding drug cartels occurs in Mexico,o Mexican drug cartel activity has fueled crime in the porous US Southwest Border region, where easy access to weapons, a high demand for drugs, ample opportunity for law enforcement corruption, and a large Hispanic population ripe for recruitment and exploitation exists.40
Hispanic prison gangs along the Southwest border region are strengthening their ties with MDTOs to acquire wholesale quantities of drugs, according to NDIC reporting.41 In exchange for a consistent drug supply, US-based gangs smuggle and distribute drugs, collect drug proceeds, launder money, smuggle weapons, commit kidnappings, and serve as lookouts and enforcers on behalf of the MDTOs. MDTOs subsequently profit from increased drug circulation in the United States, while US-based gangs have access to a consistent drug supply which expands their influence, power, and ability to recruit.42
According to NDIC reporting, more than 45 percent of law enforcement agencies in the Southwestern United States report that gangs in their jurisdiction are moderately to highly involved in drug activity, while 30 percent indicate that street gang involvement in drug activity increased within the past year.
Gang-related activity and violence has increased along the Southwest border region, as US-based gangs seek to prove their worth to the drug cartels, compete with other gangs for favor, and act as US-based enforcers for cartels which involves home invasions, robbery, kidnapping, and murder.
  • In July 2010, Mexican authorities arrested two members of the Barrio Azteca for the murders of a US Consulate employee and her husband in Juarez, Mexico. The gang, who allegedly committed the murders on behalf of the Juarez Cartel, has also made several threats against law enforcement officials.43,p
Arrangements between gangs operating along the Southwest border and MDTOs are the result of physical proximity and strong familial ties that many US-based Hispanic gang members retain with family and friends in Mexico.
Northern Border
Gangs pose a growing problem for law enforcement along the US-Canada border, particularly the border areas in the New England and Pacific Regions. Gangs smuggle drugs, cigarettes, firearms, and immigrants across the US-Canada borders, according to NDIC reporting.44 Members of several regional- and national-level gangs, including Asian Boyz, Hells Angels, and Outlaws, smuggle large quantities of illicit drugs across the US-Canada border in New England, often conducting their smuggling operations in association with members of transnational criminal and drug trafficking organizations. According to law enforcement officials in the Pacific Region, members of several gangs, including the Hells Angels and Asian gangs, engage in cross-border criminal activity in their jurisdictions. 

Los Zetas Drug Trafficking Organization
Los Zetas organization was established in the late 1990s as the enforcement arm of the Gulf Cartel drug trafficking organization to protect and expand the Gulf Cartel’s operations. Consisting of highly trained soldiers who defected from the Mexican Special Air Mobile Force Group (GAFE), the Zetas have evolved from a wing of the Gulf Cartel into their own drug trafficking organization.

  • Hells Angels members have reportedly smuggled MDMA (Ecstasy) from British Columbia, Canada into Bellingham, Washington, according to 2010 open source reporting.
  • Asian DTOs smuggle large quantities of MDMA through and between ports of entry along the US-Canada border, according to 2010 NDIC reporting.45
Figure 16. Los Zetas Commando Medallion
zeta-commando-medallion-atf
Source: ATF
Canadian DTOs smuggle significant amounts of cash generated from the US distribution of Canada-produced drugs into Canada, according to NDIC reporting. The Akwesasne Territory, which straddles the US–Canada border, is one of the most prominent smuggling corridors for Canada-bound bulk cash. The topography of the US-Canada border is conducive to bulk cash smuggling because currency interdiction by law enforcement officials is often hampered by the border’s length and rugged terrain.46
Gangs, Technology, and Communication
Gangs are becoming increasingly savvy and are embracing new and advanced technology to facilitate criminal activity and enhance their criminal operations. Prepaid cell phones, social networking and microblogging websites, VoIP systems, virtual worlds, and gaming systems enable gang members to communicate globally and discreetly. Gangs are also increasingly employing advanced countermeasures to monitor and target law enforcement while engaging in a host of criminal activity.

technology
Internet Use for Propaganda, Intimidation, and Recruitment
According to open sources and law enforcement reporting, since 2005, MDTOs have exploited blogs and popular websites like YouTube and MySpace for propaganda and intimidation. MDTOs have posted hundreds of videos depicting interrogations or executions of rival MDTO members. Other postings include video montages of luxury vehicles, weapons, and money set to the music of songs with lyrics that glorify the drug lifestyle. While some of these postings may offer specific recruitment information, they serve more as tools for propaganda and intimidation.


Gang members routinely utilize the Internet to communicate with one another, recruit, promote their gang, intimidate rivals and police, conduct gang business, showcase illegal exploits, and facilitate criminal activity such as drug trafficking, extortion, identity theft, money laundering, and prostitution. Social networking, microblogging, and video-sharing websites—such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter—are now more accessible, versatile, and allow tens of thousands of gang members to easily communicate, recruit, and form new gang alliances nationwide and worldwide.q
NGIC reporting indicates that a majority of gang members use the Internet for recruitment, gang promotion, and cyber-bullying or intimidation. Many also use the Internet for identity theft, computer hacking, and phishing schemes.
  • According to NGIC reporting, gang recruitment and intimidation is heavily facilitated through the Internet. Gangs use social networking sites such as Facebook to promote their gang, post photos of their gang lifestyle, and display their bravado, which ultimately influences other youth to join gangs.
  • NGIC law enforcement partners report that gangs in their jurisdiction are frequently using the Internet to recruit and communicate with gang members throughout the region, nationwide, and in Central and South America. Law enforcement officials in Texas report that incarcerated gang members use Facebook and MySpace to recruit.
  • Police in Missouri report a rise in “promotion teams”—often consisting of gang members—using Internet chat rooms to promote clubs and parties for a fee, according to NGIC reporting.
The proliferation of social networking websites has made gang activity more prevalent and lethalmoving gangs from the streets into cyber space. Gang members, criminals, and drug traffickers are using the Internet not only to recruit and build their social networks, but to expand and operate their criminal networks without the proximity once needed for communication. Likewise, youth in other regions and countries are influenced by what they see online and may be encouraged to connect with or emulate a gang, facilitating the global spread of gang culture.
  • Gang members in Missouri and Nebraska are increasingly using social media to recruit and communicate with other gang members, according to NGIC reporting.

second-life
Second Life Virtual World
Second Life is a computer-based virtual world with a simulated environment where users inhabit and interact via avatars, or graphical representations. The virtual world may depict a real world or a fantasy world. Users communicate through text-chat and real-time voice-based chat. Second Life provides versatility and anonymity and allows for covert communications. Because of its anonymity and versatility, gang members could potentially use Second Life to recruit, spread propaganda, commit other crimes such as drug trafficking, and receive training for real-world criminal operations.
Source: Information available at www.secondlife.com


According to information obtained from multiple state and federal law enforcement sources, incarcerated gang members are accessing micro-blogging and social networking web sites such as MocoSpace and Twitter with smuggled prepaid cellular telephones and using the messaging features to coordinate criminal activity.
Street gang members are also involved in cyber attacks, computer hacking, and phishing operations, often to commit identity theft and fraud. 
Gangs and Weapons
Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, resulting in potentially lethal encounters with law enforcement officers, rival gang members, and innocent bystanders. Law enforcement officials in several regions nationwide report gang members in their jurisdiction are armed with military-style weapons, such as high-caliber semiautomatic rifles, semiautomatic variants of AK-47 assault rifles, grenades, and body armor.
Figure 17. Weapons recovered from Barrio Azteca Members in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico
weapons-1
weapons-2
Source: ATF
Law enforcement officials in 34 jurisdictions report that the majority of gang-related crime is committed with firearms.
Gang members acquire firearms through a variety of means, including illegal purchases; straw purchases through surrogates or middle-men; thefts from individuals, vehicles, residences and commercial establishments; theft from law enforcement and military officials, from gang members with connections to military sources of supply, and from other gangs, according to multiple law enforcement and NGIC reporting.
Gang members are becoming more sophisticated and methodical in their methods of acquiring and purchasing firearms. Gang members often acquire their firearms through theft or through a middleman, often making a weapons trace more difficult.
Enlisted military personnel are also being utilized by gang members as a ready source for weapons. 
  • In November 2010, three former US Marines were arrested in Los Angeles, California, for selling illegal assault weapons to Florencia 13 gang members, according to open souce reporting.47
  • In November 2010, a US Navy Seal from San Diego and two others were arrested in Colorado for smuggling at least 18 military issued machine guns and 14 other firearms from Iraq and Afghanistan into the United States for sale and shipment to Mexico, according to open source reporting.48
Gang members are employing countermeasures to monitor, intercept, and target law enforcement, sometimes with elaborate weapons and devices.
  • In February 2010, a Riverside County gang task force officer in California was nearly killed when suspected members of a White Supremacist gang rigged a zip gun on a gang task force security fence to discharge if anyone entered their property (see Figure 20). In December 2009, the same group staged a natural gas explosion at their property intended for law enforcement entering the premises.49
Figure 18. Zip gun attached to the fence of a Gang Task Force in Hemet, CA
zip gun attached to fence
Source: ATF
Gangs and White Collar Crime
NGIC reporting indicates that gangs are becoming more involved in white collar crime, including identity theft, bank fraud, credit card fraud, money laundering, fencing stolen goods, counterfeiting, and mortgage fraud, and are recruiting members who possess those skill sets. Law enforcement officials nationwide indicate that many gangs in their jurisdiction are involved in some type of white collar crime.

Gang Members Targeting Law Enforcement Vehicles for Weapons
In 2009, suspected gang members in Broward County and West Palm Beach, Florida burglarized nearly a dozen marked and unmarked law enforcement vehicles stealing firearms, ballistic vests, and police identification.
Source: FBI-NGIC, “Gangs Targeting Law Enforcement for Weapons and Equipment Theft; Intelligence Bulletin; 21 December 2009

  • NGIC reporting indicates that the Bloods, Crips, Gangster Disciples, Vice Lords, Latin Kings, Mexican Mafia, Sureños, Norteños, La Nuestra Familia, Texas Syndicate, Aryan Brotherhood, various OMG and Asian gangs, and neighborhood-based gangs are engaging in white collar crime.
Many gang members are engaging in counterfeiting because of its low risks and high financial rewards. 
  • In July 2010, a Florencia 13 gang member in Los Angeles was arrested for operating a lab from his home that manufactured pirated video games.50
  • In April 2010, a member of the East Coast Crips was arrested in Los Angeles, California, for the sale of counterfeit goods and drug trafficking at a clothing store he co-owned. Police confiscated 824 counterfeit items from the store worth $43,762.51
Gang members are laundering profits from criminal activities such as drug trafficking and prostitution, through front companies such music businesses, beauty shops, auto repair shops, law firms, and medical offices. 
  • Members of the Black Guerilla Family in Maryland used pre-paid retail debit cards as virtual currency inside Maryland prisons to purchase drugs and further the gangs’ interests, according to August 2010 open source reporting.52
Some gangs, such as the Bloods and Gangster Disciples, are committing sophisticated mortgage fraud schemes by purchasing properties with the intent to receive seller assistance loans and, ultimately retain the proceeds from the loans, or to comingle illicit funds through mortgage payments. Gang members are also exploiting vulnerabilities in the banking and mortgage industries for profit.
  • According to open source reporting, in April 2009, members of the Bloods in San Diego, California were charged with racketeering and mortgage fraud.53
Law Enforcement Actions and Resources
Gang units and task forces are a vital component in targeting gangs and have played a substantial role in mitigating gang activity in a number of US communities. The majority of NGIC law enforcement partners report that their agency has or participates in a gang task force, and most utilize a gang database to track and monitor gang members in their jurisdictions. There are 168 FBI Violent Gang Task Forces in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. In addition, ATF operates 31 Violent Crime Impact Teams (VCIT) and ICE operates eight Operation Community Shield (OCS) Initiatives nationwide (see Appendix C). The collaboration and coordination of federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies has resulted in a number of successes involving gang suppression efforts.
NGIC law enforcement partners in at least 107 jurisdictions report that law enforcement action has resulted in a decrease of gangs or gang activity in their region.
  • In March 2011, officials from DHS, CBP, ICE, ATF, and local San Diego police were involved in the arrest of over 67 gang members and associates for drugs and cross-border crimes in the San Diego, California area. Operation Allied Shield III, a part of a San Diego County initiative to focus on prevention, detection, and suppression of crimes in areas impacted by border-related crime, aimed to seize drugs and weapons and to identify and observe gang members in a proactive way.54
  • In March 2011, 35 leaders, members, and associates of the Barrio Azteca gang in Texas were charged in a federal indictment for various counts of racketeering, murder, drug offenses, money laundering, and obstruction of justice. Ten subjects were charged with the March 2010 murders of a US Consulate employee, her husband, and the husband of another consulate employee, in Juarez, Mexico.55
  • In February 2011, FBI, ATF, ICE, and DHS, and numerous state and local officials charged 41 gang members and associates from several different gangs in five districts with multiple offenses, including racketeering conspiracy, murder, drug and gun trafficking. The indictment involved members from the Click Clack gang in Kansas City, Missouri; the Colonias Chiques gang in Los Angeles; the Sureno 13 and San Chucos gangs in Las Vegas; MS-13 in Washington; and 13 Tri-City Bomber members and associates in the McAllen, Texas area.56
Outlook
Street, prison, and motorcycle gang membership and criminal activity continues to flourish in US communities where gangs identify opportunities to control street level drug sales, and other profitable crimes. Gangs will not only continue to defend their territory from rival gangs, but will also increasingly seek to diversify both their membership and their criminal activities in recognition of potential financial gain. New alliances between rival gangs will likely form as gangs suspend their former racial ideologies in pursuit of mutual profit. Gangs will continue to evolve and adapt to current conditions and law enforcement tactics, diversify their criminal activity, and employ new strategies and technology to enhance their criminal operations, while facilitating lower-risk and more profitable schemes, such as white collar crime.
The expansion of communication networks, especially in wireless communications and the Internet, will allow gang members to form associations and alliances with other gangs and criminal organizations—both domestically and internationally—and enable gang members to better facilitate criminal activity and enhance their criminal operations discreetly without the physical interfacing once necessary to conduct these activities.
Changes in immigrant populations, which are susceptible to victimization and recruitment by gangs, may have the most profound effect on street gang membership. Continued drug trafficking-related violence along the US Southwest border could trigger increased migration of Mexicans and Central Americans into the United States and, as such, provide a greater pool of victims, recruits, and criminal opportunities for street gangs as they seek to profit from the illegal drug trade, alien smuggling, and weapons trafficking. Likewise, increased gang recruitment of youths among the immigrant population may result in an increase in gang membership and gang-related violence in a number of regions.
Street gang activity and violence may also increase as more dangerous gang members are released early from prison and re-establish their roles armed with new knowledge and improved techniques. Prison gang members, already an ideal target audience for radicalization, may expand their associations with foreign gang members or radical criminal organizations, both inside correctional institutions and in the community upon their release.
Gang members armed with high-powered weapons and knowledge and expertise acquired from employment in law enforcement, corrections, or the military may pose an increasing nationwide threat, as they employ these tactics and weapons against law enforcement officials, rival gang members, and civilians.
Globalization, socio-political change, technological advances, and immigration will result either in greater gang expansion and gang-related crime or displace gang members as they search for criminal opportunities elsewhere. Stagnant or poor economic conditions in the United States, including budget cuts in law enforcement, may undercut gang dismantlement efforts and encourage gang expansion as police agencies redirect their resources and disband gang units and taskforces, as reported by a large number of law enforcement agencies.
Maps. Gang Presence in the United States
Map 1. US Nationwide Gang Presence
ngic-ndic_usgangpresence06_11map
Map 2. West Region
ngic-ndicgangpresence_west_6-11map
Map 3. South Central Region
ngic-ndicgangpresence_scentral_2011_6-11map
Map 4. North Central Region
ndic-ngicgangpresence_ncentral06-11map
Map 5. Southeast Region
ndic-ngicgangpresence_southeast_6-11
Map 6. Northeast Region
ndic-ngicgangpresence_northeast_6-11map
Map 7. FBI Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Violent Crime, 2009
fbi-ucr-vc_by_county_2009

APPENDIX A. Gangs by State
ALABAMA
31st Street Mob
33rd Street Posse
400 Block
4th Ward Bloods
Alberta City Boys
Alpha Tau Omega
Aryan Brotherhood
Avenue Piru Gangsters Bandaleros
Bandidos MC
Bay Boys
Black Cherry 8 Balls
Black Gangster Disciples
Black Mafia Family
Black Pistons MC
Bloods Boom Squad
Brown Pride
Central Park Bloods
Central Park Boys
Collegeville Posse
Corner Boys Crips
Devils Disciples MC
Eastside Bloods
Ensley Town Killers
Evergreen Bottom Boys
Gad Town Klowns
Gangsta G’s
Gangster Disciples
Ghettie Boyz
Give No Fucks
Green Acres Crips
Hazel Green Boys
Hells Lovers MC
Imperial Gangster Disciples
Insane Gangster Disciples
Juggalos
La Familia
La Quemada
Latin Kings
Latino Bloods Crips
Little Trouble Makers
Los Bolinos
Los Zetas
Lovemans Village Posse
Lynch Mob
Malditos 13
Melos 13
Northside Bloods
Northsiders 62 Po Boys
On Fire Boys
On Fire Girls
Outcast MC
Pistoleros MC
Outlaws MC
Pratt Boys
Riley Boys
Seven Deadly Sins
Sherman Heights Posse
Sin City Disciples MC
Six Deuce Brims
Smithfield Posse
Southern Brotherhood
Southside Cyclones
Southside Locos
Southside Youngsters
Sur-13
T Dub
Tango Blast
Technical Knockout
Titusville Posse
Toney Project Boys
Trap Boys
Trap Girls
Tribe MC
United Together Forever
Vatos Locos
Vice Hill Posse
Vice Lords
View Mob
Westside Crips
Wheels of Soul MC
Wylam Boys  

ALASKA
50150 Crips
88 Street Crips
Almighty Latin King Nation
Almighty Vice Lord Nation
Altadena Crip Gangster
American Front
Aryan Brotherhood
Baby Hamo Tribe
Black Gangster Disciples
Blackwood Mafia
Chaos Drama Family
Combat Crips
Compton Swamp Crips
Deuce
Faceside Bloods
Fam Bam
Franklin Family Piru
Fresno Bulldogs
Full Time Criminals
Gangster Disciples
Goonies For Life
Hamo Tribe
Hells Angels MC
Hmong Nation Society
Hollow Tip Crew
Iceberg Clique
Juvenile Delinquents
Korrupt(ed) Crew
Laos Oriental Soldiers
Laotian Blood Killers
Laotian Thugz
Locc Down Crips
Loco Latin Crips
Los Malditos
MS-13
Member of Blood
Menace of Destruction
Mongolian Boys Society
Mountain View Crips
Murder Mob
Northside Damu
Outlawz
Peckerwoods
Real ‘Bout It Individuals
Royal Samoan Posse
Samoan Dynasty
Sons of Samoa
Soulja Crew
Southside Mesa
Sureños
The Family
The Low Lifes
Tiny Rascals Gang
Tongang Crip Gang
Top Notch Ballers
Uso 4 Life
Uso Squad
Westside City Crips
Westside Inland Empire Projects
Yellow Oriental Troop
Young Gangsta Niggas 

ARIZONA
“A” Mountain Crips
10th Ave JP Crips
12th Ave Crips
29th Street Bloods
36th Street Vista Bloods
36th Street Vista Chicanos
4th Ave Crips
Aryan Brotherhood
Barrio Anita
Barrio Centro
Barrio Chicano Southside
Barrio Hollywood
Barrio Libre
Barrio Loco
Barrio Nuevo Locos
Barrio Savaco
Bilby Street Crips
Black Rags
Duce Nine Crips
Eastside Bloods
Eastside Crips
Eastside Maria Crips
Eastside Torrance
Folk Nation
Gangster Disciples
Grandale
Hells Angels MC
Hollywood Soma
Juggalos
Jollyville Crips
La Tusa
La Victoria Locos
Little Town
Little Town Crips
Locos Bloodline
Manzanita Lynch Mob Crips
Maryvale Gangsta Crips
Mau Mau
Mexican Mafia
Midvale Park Bloods
Mission Manor Park Bloods
Mongols
New Mexican Mafia
Northside Chicanos
Northside White Pride
Okie Town
Old Mexican Mafia
Old Pascua
Peckerwoods
Skinheads
Sons of Hell
South Palo Verde Bloods
South Park Family Gangsters
Southeast Hustler Bloods
Southside Boyz
Southside Brown Pride
Southside Harbor City
Southside Posse Bloods
Sureños
Trekell Park Crips
Varrio Loco
V-12 Bloods
Vagos MC
Vindlanders
West Mesa
West Ross Street Piru
Western Hills Posse Bloods
Westside Brown Pride
Wet Back Power
Warrior Society
Western Hills Bloods
ARKANSAS

Bandidos MC
Blood
Crips
Folk Nation
Outlaws MC
People Nation
Sons of Silence MC
Wheels of Soul MC 

CALIFORNIA
18th St
159th Avenue
17th St
38th Avenue Locos
38th Street
415 Kumi
49 St hustler Crips
5/9 Brims
51st Avenue locos
51st St locos
A Street
AC Acorn
Acre Boys
Al Capone
Aryan Brotherhood
Asian Boyz
Asian Crips
Asian Insane Boys
Asian Street Walkers
Asian Warriors
Atascadero 13
AVE 39
AVE 51
AVE 53
Aztec Tribe Cholos
Azusa 13
B Street
Bahala Na’ Barkada
Bakersfield Bastards MC
Barrio San Juan 13
Barrio Cathedral City
Barrio Eastside
Barrio Pobre
Barrio San Juan
Barrio Small Town
Brown Brotherhood
Brown Crowd Locos
Barrio Central Vallejo
Black Guerilla Family
Block Boys
Blue Team
Blvd Crips
Bolen
Border Brothers
Bratz
Brick Block Crips
Broderick Boys
Brown Brotherhood
Brown Life Familia
Brown Pride Soldiers
Brown Pride Soldiers 13
Brown Pride Sureño
Browns Town
Bulldogs
Burger Team
Calle Ocho (8th street)
Campbell Village Gangsters
Campos Ramos Locos
Canta Ranas 13
Carmelas 13
Carps
Central Vallejo Clicka
Chankla Bulldogs
Chino Sinners
City Heights Trece Juniors
Clairemont Locos
Coachella Tiny Locos
CoCo County Boys
Cold Nigga Mafia
Colonia Bakers
Compton Varrio Tortilla Flats
Corona Varrio Locos
Country Boy Crips
COVINA 13
Crazy Brothers Clan
Crazy Brown Norteños
Crazy Fucking Mexicans
Crazy Krooks
Crazy Royal Kings
Crow Village
Cudahy 13
Cut Throat Mob
Davis Street Locos
Dead End Street
Death Crowd 13
Del Sol
Delhi Alley Boys
Desperados MC
Dirty Thirties
Dog Soldiers
Dreamhomes
Droppin Niggas Instantly
Down To Scrap Krew
East Coast Crips
Eastbound Loco
Eastside Familia
Eastside Longos
Eastside Rivas
Eastside SD El Cajon Locos
El Hoyo Palmas
EL Monte Flores
Elm St Watts
Eastside Montalvo
Exotic Foreign City Crips
Family Affiliated Irish Mafia Fain
Familia Hispana
Farmerside Bulldogs
Florencia 13
Four Corner Block Crips
Fresnecks Ftroop
Fuck My Enemies
Fuck the World
Gardenview Locos
Gas Team
Gateway Posse Crips
Ghetto Assassins
Ghostown
Goleta 13
H Street
Hard Side Clique
Hard Times
Hawaiian Gardens 13
Hells Angels MC
Highly Insane Criminals
Hispanic Kings
Homicidal Family
Hoodlum Family
Hop Sing Boyz
Humboldt
Humboldt County Gangsters
Imperials
Indian Pride
Inglewood Family Gangster
Inglewood Trece
Insane Crips
Insane Viet Thugz
Jackson Terrace
Jamaican Mafia Family
Juggalos
Kansas Street
Kings Of Cali MC
Krazy Ass Samoans
Krazy Assassins
Kumi
La Nuestra Familia
LB Suicidal Punks
Lennox
Lincoln Park Piru
Lincoln Town Sureños
Linda Vista 13
Lo Mob
Logan 30ta
Logan Heights
Logan Red Steps
Loma Bakers
Lomita Village 70’s
Long Beach Locos
Lorenzo Team
Los Marijuanas Smokers
Los Nietos 13
Los Padrinos
Low Profile Kings
Lo Boys
Lunatics On Crack
Lynwood Dukes
Mac Mafia
Manor Dro Boyz
Manor Park Gangsters
Marijuana Locos
Mayfair Santa Rosa Criminals
Mexican Klan Locos
Mexican Mafia
Mexican Pride 13
Midcity Stoners
Midtown Proyectos
Mission Bay Locos
Mitchel Street Norteños
Mob Squad
Mob To Kill
Molochs
Mongols MC
Mountain View Sureños
MS-13
National City Locos
Nazi Low Riders
Neighborhood Crips
Nip Killer Squad
Nipomo 13 Norte
North Town Stoners
Northern Riders
Northern Structure
Northside Hayward
Northside Indio
Northside Longos
Nuestra Raza
Nutty Side Paramount
Oaktown Crips
Oceano 13
O-hood Crips
Okie Bakers
Old Town National City
Olivo Bulldogs
Oriental Boy Soldiers
Oriental Boys
Oriental Killer Boys
Oriental Lazy Boys
Orphans
Otay
Palm City
Paradise Hills Locos
Paso Robles 13
Peckerwoods
Public Enemy Number One (PENI)
Pierpont Rats
Pierpont-Ventura
Playa Larga
Pomona 12th Street
Power of Vietnamese
Puente 13
Pure Mexican Raza
Puro Raza Loco
Puro Varrio Campo
Quiet Assassins
Quiet Village 13
Quince Southside Locos
Red Team
Res Boys
Ridezilla
Rockcreek
Rollin 20 Crips
S. Central Locos
Sacramaniacs
San Dimas Rifa
San Jose Crazy Crips
San Jose Grande
San St Paramount
Santa Monica Gang
Santa Nita
Saticoy- Ventura Eastside
Screamin Demons MC
Shandon Park Locos 13 Shelltown
Shelltown Gamma
Sherman Lomas Market Street
Sidro
Skinheads
Skyline Piru
So Gate Tokers
Sobrante Park
Solano Side
Sons of Samoa
Sotel 13
South Gate Smokers
South Vietnam
Southeast Locos
Southern Locos Gangsters 13
Southside Bakers
Southside Criminals
Southside Huntington Beach
Southside Indio
Southside Playboys
Southside Players
Southside Whittier 13
Spring Valley Locos
Squeeze Team
Sucidals Sunny Block Crips
Sunnyvale Sur Trece
Sur Santos Pride
Sur Town Locos
Sureño Unidos Trece
Sureños Por Vida
Tangas
Tehachapi 13
Tiny Rascal Gang
Tongan For Life
Top Hatters
Underworld Zilla
Untouchables
USO Squad
Ventura Avenue Gangsters
Vagos MC
Valinda Flats
Varrio Concord Norte
Varrio Northside
Varrio Nueva Estrada
Varrio Simi Valley
Varrio Bakers
Varrio Chula Vista
Varrio Coachella Rifa
Varrio Coachella Rifa 52
Varrio Coachella Rifa 53
Varrio Encanto Locos
Varrio Grinfas
Varrio Horseshoe
Varrio Locos
Varrio Meadow Fair
Varrio Mecca Rifa
Varrio Mountain View
Varrio Norwalk 13
Varrio Nuevo Coachella
Varrio Oasis Rifa
Varrio Palmas Gang
Varrio Penn West
Varrio South Garden
Varrio Sur Rifa
Varrio Tamilee Gangsters
Varrio Thermal Rifa
Varrio Xechos Locos
Vatos Locos
Venice 13
Venice Shoreline Crips
Viet Outlaws
Vietnam
Wah Ching
Walnut Creek 13
Warlord Bloods
West Coast Crips
West Covina 13
West Covina Crips
West Covina MOB
West Drive Locos
West Myrtle Townsend Street
Westside Hustlers
Westside Islanders
Westside Locos
Westside Longos
Westside MOB
Westside Stoners
Wheels of Soul MC
White Power
Whittier
Wicked Minded Sureños
Wicked Minded Sureños 13
Willow Street
Young Crazy Thugs
Young Cutties
Zetas 

COLORADO
18th Street
211 Crew
81st Street Crips
American Nazi Party
Bandidos MC
Brown Pride Sureños
Carver Park Crips
Eastside Dukes
Folks
Gallant Knights
Gangster Disciples
GKI 211 Crew Bloods
Hells Angels
Insane Norteños
Juaritos
Kraziest Thugs Around
Los Primer Padres
Mexican Mafia
MS-13
Mongols MC
Murder All Cliques
Norteños
Northside Criminals
Northside Mafia
Oldies 13
Outlaws MC
Paisas
Parkside Varrio
Peckerwoods
Playboys
Sons of Silence MC
Southside Locos
Sureño Desert Empire
Sureños
Two Eleven

CONNECTICUT
Battalion 14
Blake Street Goonies
Bloods
Carmel Street Goons
Charter Oak Crips
Cruel 36 Family
Diablos MC
Eastern Circle Projects 3x
Fairside 2x
G-25
G-27
G-Side Projects
Hells Angels MC
Hill Most Wanted
Hillside 4x
La Familia
Latin Kings and Queens
Manor 5x
MS-13
Netas
Outlaws MC
Solidos
The Ave
Tiny Mami Squad
Tiny Papi Squad
Tre 3x
Tribe 3x
Trinitarios
Ville 2x

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
18th Street
Bloods
Crips
Latin Kings
MS-13

DELAWARE
135 Bloods
9 Trey
9 Triggaz
924 Bloods
Anybody Gets It
Bounty Hunter Bloods
Bush Babies
Cash Hoe Murda
Certified Ballina Killers
Crips
Dawg City Piru
East Coast Bloods
Gangster Disciples
Latin Kings
Netas
Ochos
Pagans
South Los
Sur-13
Street Piru Bloods

FLORIDA
1000 Block
103rd St Buck Wild CA Latin Lingo
10th St Gang
110th St Bloods
1200 Block
12th Court Cowboys
13th Avenue Hotboys
13th Street Gang
170 Boyz
181
187
1887
18th Street
20 Deep
21 Gunz
211 Crips
2150 EAP
22nd Street
23rd Street Trail Blazers
24th Street Gang
25 Mafia
27’s Puerto Rico PG
2nd Line Goons
300 Block
311 Westside KTP
312 Crips
7414 Gangster Disciples
34th Folk Boys
39th Street Boys
3KN
4 Way Boys
45th St FAM
46 Ave Boyz
5 Deuce Hoover Crips
5 Trey Bloods
5% 386
5020 Peckerwood
5150 Piru Bloods
52 Hoover Crips
551 Crips
58th Ave.
59 Hoover Crips
7 Trey Crips
700 Block
74 Gangster Disciples
7414 Gangster Disciples
8 Tre Crips
8 Trey Gangster Crips
800 Bound
813 Black Gangster Disciples
819 Boys
9 Trey Gangsters
9 Trey Murk Squad Blood
9-Tech Bloods
A&E Bird Gang
Ace Boon Goons
All City Certified Gangstas
Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation
American Nazi Party Anarchist
Anarchist
Any Body Killas
APK Boys
Aryan Brotherhood
Aryan Nation
Barrio Boys
Batchelors
Behind the Plaza Boys
Beruit Snakes
Big Money Posse
Bithlo Bike Crew
Black Angels
Black Flag Mafia
Black Gangster Disciple
Black Mafia
Black MOB
Black P Stone Nation
Black Pines
Black Pistons MC
Black Spade Squad
Black T Mafia
Blue Angel
Blue Devil Gangster Crips
Booker Heights Posse
Border Brothers
Brookhill Hillboys Most Wanted
Brown Pride
Bruise Brothers MC
Buck Block
Camphor Way Boys
Cartel Southside Gansta Crips
Carver Shore Boys
Cash Feenz
CFL Most Wanted
Chicago Bloods
Chico Cracker Klique
Chico’s In Action
Click Tight
Clown Boiz Crips
Cold Side Posse
College Park Thugs
Confederate Hammerskins
Corner Boy Mafia
Crazy Brown Boys
Crazy Gangster Disciple
Crazy Insane Disciples
Crazy Killer Zoes
Criminal Gangsters
Cut Throat Crew/Committee
D-BOYZ
Dirty White Boys
Down 4 Whatever
Dark Angels
Darkside Boyz
Deaths Last Clique
Deland Regulators
DeLeon Springs
Deuce Crips
Deuce Deuce
Dirty Game
Dirty South Mafia
Dirty White Boys
Disciples of Discipline
Doo Doo Creek
Doom Squad
Dover Locos
Down For Life
Down South Florida Boys
Down South Gangster
Downtown Crips
DRAK BOYS
Draks
Dred Mafia
East Orlando Warriors
Eastside 9 Trey Gangster Bloods
Eastside Bloods
Eastside Crips
Eastside Jack Boyz
Eastside Piru
Eastside Rolling 60’s Crips
Elm Street Piru Bloods
Eternal Gangster
Eureka Garden Goons
Every Niggas Nightmare
Family of Hustlers
Flag Street
Flip Star Crips
Florencia 13
Folk
Folk Disciples
Folk Nation
For The Warriors
Front Street Boyz
G Shine Bloods
G Stone Crip
G25
Gangster Killer Bloods
Gangsta Piru
Gangstas For Life
Gangster Disciples
Gangster Imperial Gangsters
Gangster Prophet
Gangsters 4 Life
Get Up Kids
Ghostrider Crips
Golden Gate Goons
Goyams
Grand Park Grape Street Crips
Guardians
Guk-Get Up Kids
Gun Clap N Crips
Hammerskins
Hill Top Boys
Hoover Crip
Hoover Deuce Crips
Hope Circle Bois
Hot Boys
Hustle Harder
Imperial Gangster Disciples
Imperial Gangsters
Imperial Kings Inland Empire
Insane Dragons
Insane Gangster Crips
Insane Gangster Disciple
Insane MOB Boys
Insane Spanish Lords
International Folk Posse
International Posse
International Posse 13th
Island Boys Clique
Jack Boys
Jensen Beach Clique
Juggalos
Knock Out Squad
King Con Sureños
Keep On Spraying
Ken Knight
Krazy Getdown Boys
Kruption Boys
Kuntry Boyz
La Raza
Lady Knock Out Squad
Lakawanna Boys Latin Crew
Latin Disciples
Latin Eagles
Latin Kings
Latin Life
Latin Lingo Legacy Mafia
Latin Syndicates
Legion of Doom
Little Altamonte Goons
Little Haiti Bloods
Livingston Dawgs
Lockhart Boyz
Loco Trece
Los 27
Los Chicanos
Los Salidos
Lost Boys
Lusoanderson Boys
M.A.C. Crip
Mafia Kings
Mafia Street Gangsta Crips
Main Street Posse
Maniac Campbell Disc Ñeta
Maniac Gangster Disciples
Maniac Latin Disciples
Mascotte City Gangster Folk Nation
Mayan Pride
Melbourne Town Soldiers
Mexican Diplomats
Mexican Mafia
Midway Goons
Milla Southside
Miller Gangsta Blood
Miller Set
MOB Folks
Mohawk Boys
Moncrief “MCT”
Money Mafia
Morgan Boys
Most Hated Brothers
Mother Fuckin Goons
Money Power Respect
MS-13
Murda Grove Boys
Murder Set Bloods
Murk
Myrtle Avenue
Nazi Juggalo
Ñeta
New Smyrna Beach Boyz
New York Outlaws
Nuestra Familia
Nine Trey Blood
Nine Trey Gangsters
Nines Techs & Grenades Norte 14
Northlake Boys
Not Fair Ones
Nuccio Boys
Oak Ridge Jungle Boys
Oaktown Niggaz
Oceanway Mafia
OLD Gang
One Love Nation
Orange City Boys
Orange County Gangs 1400 Block
Orange Flag Boys
Out East Outlaws
Out of Control Gangster
Outlaw Crips Outlawz
Outlaw Gangster Crips
Outlaws MC
O.V. BOYS
Oviedo Soldiers
P.O. Boys
Payback Crips
Pagans MC
Paisa Palm River Boys
Palm City Locals
Palmdale
Parramore Snakes
Paxon Boys
Pearl World
People Nation
Phantom MC
Picketville Hustle House
Pine Hills Pimp Boyz
Pine Manor Piru Bloods
Piru Bloods
Platoon 187
Playboy Crew
Polk Street Goons
Port Orange Boys
Power Progress
Project Boys
Projects of Vietnam
P-Town
PYC Raw Dawgz
Renegades MC
Ridge Manor Boys
Rollin 20s Crips
Rollin 30’s
Rolling 60 Crips
Rough Riders
Royal Family Ace Clique
Salerno Boyz
Satan Disciples
Satan Gangster Disciples
Satanist
Savage Squad
Sex Money Murder Bloods
Sherwood
Shores Boys
Sin City Boyz
Six Point Crips
Skinheads
Smooth Fellas
So Bout It Boiz
Solo G
Sons of Silence MC
Southern Pitbulls
Southside
Southside Bloods
Southside Crips
Spanish Lords
St. Lucie Bloods Chicos in Action
Stand and Deliver
Str8drop Gang
Straight Drop
Street Runners
Supreme White Power
Sur-13
Sureños
Swamp Boyz
Tangos
TC Boys
The Fresh Kings
Third World Family
Thunder Cats
Tri-State
Top Shottas
Tre 4
Troop 31 Slum Boys Aryan Nations
Tru Soldiers
Unforgiven
Unforgiven International Posse
United Crip Nation
United King
Unknown Soldiers
Up Top Mafia
Valentine Bloods
Vandalize The Hood
Vagos
Vato Locos
Vice Lord
Victory Boyz
Villa Boyz
Villa Killas
Village Boys
V-Side Gangsters
Warlocks MC
Washington Oaks Goons
Watauga Boys
Watts City Crips
Westside
Westside Chico Boys
Westside Crips
Westside Rolling 60’s Crips
Westside Rolling 90’s Crips
White Aryan Resistance
White Power
White Pride
Wildside Young Boon Goons
Winter Garden
Wolfpack MC
Woodlands Crew
Woods Boyz
Wynwood
Y-B Zoe Pound
Y-Lo-C
Young Godz
Young Guz
Young Latin Organization
Young Outlaw Gangster Crips
Zellwood Boys
Zoe Mafia
Zoe Mafia Family
Zoe Pound
Zone 1
Zulus MC

GEORGIA
30 Deep
4WB Fourth Ward Boys
All About Cash
All About Finesse
All About Money
Atlanta Blood Gang Squad
ATL Riders
Bang Bang Anywhere Gang
Bank First Play Later
Bethel Towers Crew
Black Pistons MC
BMB Blood Money Boys
Bloods
Campbelton Road Gangsters
Certified Street Niggas
Certified Paper Chasers
Check Gang
Crips
Cross the Track Boys
Da Fam
Dem Franchise Boys
Deadly Killer Click
DTS Dogwood Trap Starts
Fuck Being Broke
Gangsta Azz Nicca
Gangster Disciples
GD 74
Gett Money Play Later Click
Guapaholic Hard Times 13
Gwalla Boys
Hard Times
Hot Boy Click
Insane Gangster Disciples
Irwin Street Gorillas
James Gang MC
Merk Squad
Most Dangerous Click
Niggas Bout Action
Niggas for Life
No Mercy/ Trained to Go
Oakland City Posse
Outcast MC
Outlaws MC
Partners of the Struggle
Pittsburgh Jack Boys
RACK Crew
Raised on Cleveland
Rollin 20’s Bloods
Rollin 60’s Crips
Runts
Simpson Road Gangsters
Stealing Everything (SIMPSET)
Sureños
Sur-13
Southside 13
Sur King Locos
Ten Little Niggas
Trained to Go
Vagos
Vatos Locos
Vice Lords
White Boi Gang
Young Block Boys
Young Choppa Fam
Young Committed Partnas
Young Cushman Boys
Young Get Money Gangsters
Young Gunna Click
Young Money Makers
Young Niggas Get Money
Young Paper Chasers
Young Crew
YSet/ Y3/ Sak Takerz

HAWAII
Vagos MC
IDAHO
Bandidos MC
Brothers Speed MC
Mexican Mafia
Northside Big Tyme
Nuestra Familia
Russian Gangs
Vagos MC
Westside 18th Street
Westside Loma Locos
ILLINOIS
12th St Players
Almighty Popes
Ambrose
Black Disciples
Black Gangster Disciples
Black P Stones
Black Pistons MC
Folks Nation
Gangster Disciples
Hells Angels
Hobo’s Imperial Gangsters
Insane Dragons
Jivers Jousters
Krazy Get Down Boys
La Raza
Latin Counts
Latin Kings
Latin Saints
Latin Souls
Leafland Street Boys
Latins Out of Control
Maniac Latin Disciples
Mickey Cobra’s
Outlaws MC
Party People
People Nation
Popes
Satan Disciples
Satin Disciples
Simon City Rollers
Sons of Silence
Spanish Cobras
Sur-13
Two Six
Vice Lords
Wheels of Soul MC

INDIANA
13’s Sureños
14’s Norteños
18th Street
American Mexican Gangster
Aryan Brotherhood
Back Pistons MC
Black Angels
Black Gangster Disciples
Black P Stones
Bloods
BPS 13
Brown Pride Gang
Buffalo Soldiers
Click Clack
Cloven Hoofs MC
Code Red
Code Red
Rollin’s 20’s Crips
Cossacks
D-Boyz
Devil Disciples
Diablos MC
Dirty White Boys
Gangster Disciples
Goons Squad
Grim Reapers MC
Haughville Syndicate
Hells Angels MC
Insane Gangster Disciples
Jimtown Boys
Kentuckiana Gunslingers
Latin Kings
Latino Riders
Locos 18
Luchiana Boyz
Mad Dog MC
Mexican Mafia
Midnight Riders MC
Milwaukee Iron
Mistic Dragons
Money Over Bitches
Mongols MC
MS-13
Murda Squad
Naptown Riders
Norteño
Northside Vatos Locos
Outlaws MC
Peace Stones
Pop It Off Boys
Pussy and Cash
Ratchet Boyz
Rebel Cause
Righteous Riders
Savages and White Boys
Saxon Knights
Sons of Silence MC
Stone Drifters
Straight Edge
Sur-13
The Cool Kids
Vice Lords
Westside Crew
Wheels of Soul MC
Zoe Pound

IOWA
18th Street
319 Crew
7 Deuces
Ambrose
Aryan Brotherhood
Aryan Nation
Aztec Kings
Black Cross
Black Disciples
Black Gangster Disciples
Black Gangsters
Black Mafia
Black P Stones
Black Panthers
Black P-Stone Nation
Black Soul Block Burners
Blackstone Rangers
Bloods
Bogus Boys
Branded Breed MC
Carney Pride
Chosen Few MC
Church of the Creator
Church of the New Song
Code Red
Custom Riders MC
Crips
Dirty White Boys
Down South Boys
Eagle Riders
Eastside Locos
Eastsiders
El Foresteros MC
El Rukens
Familia Stones
Fathers of Anarchy
Florencia 13
Four Corner Hustlers
Gangster Disciples
Grim Reapers MC
Hang Out Boys
Hells Angels MC
Imperial Gangsters
Insane Deuces
Insane Gangsters
Insane Majestics
Insane Popes
Insane Spanish Cobras
Insane Vikings
Iron Horse MC
Juggalos
La Familia
La Raza
Lao Crip
Lao Family Blood
Latin Counts
Latin King
Latin Pachucos
Lomas13
Lomax XIII
Los Chicos
Los Pelones
Lower Riders
Maniac Latin Disciples
Maple Street Goons
MS-13
Matadors MC
Mexican Mafia
Mickey Cobras
Midnight Riders MC
Ñetas
New Breed
Norteños
Northfront Occult
Outlaws MC
P13 Punte
Paisa
Peckerwoods
Players Club Posse
Posse Comitatus
Really Cocky Asshole Killers
Rebel Knights MC
Saints
San Fernando Mexicans
Satan Disciples
Satin Disciples
SHARP
Sioux City Boys
Skinheads
Sons of Freedom MC
Sons of Liberty
Sons of Silence MC
Southside 21
Spanish Cobras
Spanish Disciples Sureño
The Cool Kids
The Fellows
Two Six Nation
United Metro Front
Vagos MC
Vice Lords
Viet Solo Boys
Westside Knights
Westside Locos

APPENDIX B. MDTOs Alliances and Rivals

Cartel
Aligned With
Rivals
The Sinaloa Cartel (aka Guzman-Loera Organization or Pacific Cartel)Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos
New Mexico Syndicate
Los Carnales
Latin Kings
Mexican Mafia (California)
Sureños
MS-13
Arizona Mexican Mafia (Old & New)
Wet Back Power
Sinaloa Cowboys
West Texas Tangos
Los Negros
Valencia Cartel (Considered a branch of the Sinaloa Cartel)
Sonora Cartel (Considered a branch of the Sinaloa Cartel)
Colima Cartel (Considered a branch of the Sinaloa Cartel)
Border Brothers (California)
Border Brothers (Arizona)
Los Zetas
Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf)
Tijuana Cartel
Beltran-Leyva Cartel
Juarez Cartel
La Familia Michoacana Cartel (Formerly part of Los Zetas under the authority of the Gulf Cartel)Sinaloa Cartel
Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf)
Surenos
MS-13
West Texas Tangos
Los Zetas
Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf Cartel)
The Beltran-Leyva Cartel
Vincente Carrillo-Fuentes Cartel
(Juarez Cartel)
Los ZetasVincente Carrillo-Fuentes Cartel (Juarez)
Beltran-Leyva Cartel
Barrio Azteca
Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos
Mexikanemi
Texas Syndicate
MS-13
Arellano-Felix Cartel (Tijuana)
Cartel de la Sierra (Sierra Cartel)
Sinaloa Cartel
La Familia Michoacana Cartel
Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf)
Cardenas-Guillen Cartel (Gulf Cartel)

Sinaloa Cartel
La Familia Michoacana Cartel
Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos
Partido Revolutionary Mexicano
Raza Unida
Texas Chicano Brotherhood
Los Zetas
La Familia Michoacana Cartel
The Sinaloa Cartel
Vincente Carrillo-Fuentes Cartel (Juarez Cartel)

Los Zetas
Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos
Barrio Azteca
New Mexico Syndicate
Los Carnales
The Sinaloa Cartel
La Familia Michoacana Cartel
The Beltran-Leyva Cartel (expected to soon be taken over by the Sierra Cartel)Los ZetasLos Zetas
La Familia Michoacana Cartel
Arellano-Felix Cartel (Tijuana Cartel)Mexican Mafia (California)
Sureños
Arizona Mexican Mafia (Old & New)
Border Brothers (California)
Los Zetas
The Sinaloa Cartel


APPENDIX C. Federal Gang Task Forces
FBI Safe Streets Gang Task Forces

Alabama
Mobile Violent Crime Joint Task Force
Northeast Alabama Safe Streets Task Force

Alaska
Anchorage Safe Street Task Force

Arizona
Northern Arizona Violent Gang Task Force
Southwest Arizona Safe Streets Task Force
Violent Street Gang Task Force

Arkansas
Metro Gang-Joint Task Force

California
Central Coast Safe Streets Violent Gang Task Force
Central Valley Gang Impact Team Task Force
East County Regional Gang Task Force
Gang Impact Team (Riverside)
Imperial Valley Safe Streets Task Force
Kern County Violent Crime/Gang Task Force
Los Angeles Metro Task Force On Violent Gangs
North Bay Regional Gang Task Force
North Central Coast Gang Task Force
North County Regional Gang Task Force
Sacramento Valley Gang Suppression Team
Safe Streets East Bay Task Force
San Francisco Safe Streets Violent Crimes Task Force
San Gabriel Valley Safe Streets Violent Gang Task Force
Santa Ana Gang Task Force
Santa Clara County Violent Gang Task Force
Solano County Violent Gang Safe Streets Task Force
South LA County Violent Crimes Task Force
Stockton Violent Crime Task Force
Ventura County RIACT
Violent Crime Task Force-Gang Group

Colorado
Denver Metro Gang Safe Streets Task Force
Southern Colorado Violent Gang Safe Streets Task Force

Connecticut
Bridgeport Safe Streets Gang Violent Crimes Task Force
New Haven Safe Streets Task Force
Northern Connecticut Violent Crimes Gang Task Force

Delaware
Delaware Violent Crime Safe Streets Gang Task Force

Florida
Daytona Beach Safe Streets Task Force
Jacksonville Criminal Enterprise Investigative Task Force
Metro Orlando Safe Streets Gang Task Force
Palm Beach County Gang and Criminal Organization
Task Force
South FL. Gang/Criminal Organization Task Force
Tampa Bay Safe Streets Task Force

Georgia
Atlanta Criminal Enterprise Task Force
Central Savannah River Area Safe Streets Gang Task Force
Conasauga Major Offenders Task Force
Hall County Major Offenders Task Force
Northwest Georgia Criminal Enterprise Task Force
Southwest Georgia Gang Task Force

Idaho
Treasure Valley Metro Gang Task Force

Illinois
Eastern Illinois Safe Streets Task Force
Joint Task Force on Gangs – Tactical
Joint Task Force on Gangs - West
Joint Task Force on Gangs II
Joint Task Force on Gangs-1
Metro East Safe Streets
North Suburban Gang Task Force
Peoria Area Safe Streets Task Force
Quad Cities Fed Gang Task Force
Will County Violent Crimes Task Force

Indiana
Eastern Central Indiana Safe Streets Task Force
Fort Wayne Safe Streets Gang Task Force
Gary Response Investigative Team
Gang Response Investigative Team Tippecanoe
Indianapolis Metro Gang Safe Streets Task Force
Wabash Valley Safe Streets Task Force

Iowa
Cedar Rapids Safe Streets Task Force

Kentucky
Northern Kentucky Safe Streets Task Force

Louisiana
Calcasieu Parish Gang Task Force
Capital Area Gang Task Force
Central Louisiana Gang Task Force
New Orleans Gang Task Force
Northeast Louisiana Gang Task Force
Shreveport Task Force
South Central Louisiana Safe Streets Task Force

Maine
Southern Maine Gang Task Force

Maryland
Prince George’s County Safe Streets Task Force
Violent Crime Safe Streets Initiative

Massachusetts
North Shore Gang Task Force
Southeastern Massachusetts Gang Task Force
Western Massachusetts Gang Task Force

Michigan
Benton Harbor Violent Crime Task Force
Detroit Violent Gang Task Force
Genesee County Safe Streets Task Force
Mid-Michigan Safe Streets Task Force
Oakland County Safe Streets Task Force

Minnesota
Twin Cities Safe Streets Violent Gang Task Force

Mississippi
Jackson Safe Streets Task Force
Southeast Mississippi Safe Streets Task Force

Missouri
Kansas City Metropolitan Gang Task Force
St. Louis Safe Streets Gang Task Force

Montana
Big Sky Safe Streets Task Force
Central Montana Gang Task Force

Nebraska
Central Nebraska Drug and Safe Streets Task Force
Greater Omaha Safe Streets Task Force

Nevada
Las Vegas Safe Streets Gang Task Force

New Hampshire
New Hampshire Safe Streets Task Force

New Jersey
Jersey Shore Gang and Criminal Organization Task Force
South Jersey Violent Incident/Gang Task Force
South Jersey Violent Offender and Gang Task Force
Violent Crime Criminal Enterprise Task Force
Violent Crimes Incident Task Force

New Mexico
Albuquerque Safe Streets HIDTA Gang Task Force
Four Corners Safe Streets Task Force
Southern New Mexico Street Gang Task Force

New York
Buffalo Safe Streets Task Force
Capital District Gang Task Force
Hudson Valley Safe Streets Violent Gang Task Force
Long Island Gang Task Force
Westchester County Violent Crimes Task Force

North Carolina
Charlotte Safe Streets Task Force
Piedmont Triad Safe Streets Gang Task Force
Raleigh Durham Safe Streets Task Force
Wilmington Safe Streets Task Force

Ohio
Greater Akron Area Safe Streets Task Force
Mahoning Valley Violent Crime Task Force
Miami Valley Safe Streets Task Force
Stark County, Ohio Violent Crime/Fugitive Task Force

Oklahoma
Oklahoma City Metropolitan Gang Task Force

Oregon
Portland Metro Gang Task Force

Pennsylvania
Bucks County Violent Gang Task Force
Capital Cities Safe Streets Task Force
Delaware Valley Violent Crimes Task Force
Erie Area Gang Law Enforcement Task Force
Greater Pittsburgh Safe Streets Task Force
Lehigh Valley Violent Crimes Task Force
Philadelphia Violent Gang Task Force
Safe Streets Violent Crimes Task Force
Safe Streets Violent Drug Gang Task Force
Steamtown Gang Task Force
SW Pennsylvania Safe Streets Task Force

Puerto Rico
Aguadilla Regional Enforcement Team
Fajardo Regional Enforcement Team
Ponce Safe Streets Task Force
Safe Streets Task Force

Rhode Island
Rhode Island Violent Crimes/Gang Task Force

South Carolina
Columbia Violent Gang Task Force
Pee Dee Violent Crime Task Force

Tennessee
Chattanooga Safe Streets Task Force
Knoxville Headquarters Safe Streets Violent Crimes
Task Force
Nashville Violent Crimes Gang Task Force
Safe Streets Task Force HQ City

Texas
Austin Violent Crime Gang/Organized Crime Task Force
Corpus Christi Violent Crimes Task Force
East Texas Area Gang Initiative
El Paso Street and Prison Gang Task Force
Houston Coastal Safe Streets Task Force
Multi-Agency Gang Task Force
Rio Grand Valley Violent Crimes Task Force
San Antonio Safe Streets Violent Crimes Task Force
Southeast Texas Safe Streets Task Force
Tarrant County Safe Streets Task Force
Violent Crimes and Major Offenders and Gang Task Force
West Texas Anti-Gang Team
West Texas Area Major Offender Task Force

Utah
Northern Utah Criminal Apprehension Team
Safe Streets Violent Crime Task Force

Virginia
Richmond Area Violent Enterprise Task Force
South Piedmont Virginia Gang Task Force
The Peninsula Safe Streets Task Force
Tidewater Violent Crimes Task Force

Washington
Seattle Safe Streets and Gang Task Force
South Sound Gang Task Force
Southwest Washington Safe Streets Task Force
Spokane Violent Crime Gang Enforcement Team
Tri-Cities Violent Crime Gang Enforcement Team

Washington, D.C.
WFO/MPD/Safe Streets Gang Task Force

West Virginia
Eastern Panhandle and Potomac Highlands Safe Streets Task Force
Huntington Violent Crimes/Drug Task Force

Wisconsin
Gang-Rock County Task Force
Greater Racine Gang Task Force



ATF Violent Crime Impact Teams (VCIT)
map_of_vcit_cities_-april_2011-1
Source: ATF
ICE Operation Community Shield (OCS) Initiative Targets
map-of-ice-ocs-cities-april-2011
Source: ICE


APPENDIX D. Acknowledgements
FEDERAL
US Department of Defense
Naval Criminal Investigative Service
US Army
Fort Dix Criminal Investigative Division
Directorate Emergency Services USAG-HI
US Department of Homeland Security
US Border Patrol
US Citizenship and Immigration Services
US Customs and Border Protection
US Homeland Security Investigations
US Department of the Interior
Bureau of Land Management
US Department of Justice
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Drug Enforcement Administration
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Prisons
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
National Drug Intelligence Center
National Gang Center
National Gang Intelligence Center
US Marshals Service
US Probation and Parole
US Department of State

LOCAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL
ALABAMA
Alabama Fusion Center
Bessemer Police Department
Birmingham Police Department
Etowah County Drug Task Force
Irondale Police Department
Madison County Sheriff’s Office
Pelham Police Department

ALASKA
Alaska Department of Corrections
Anchorage Police Department

ARIZONA
Arizona Adult Probation
Arizona Department of Corrections
Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections
Arizona Department of Public Safety
Arizona DPS-State Gang Task Force (GIITEM) Central District
Arizona State Prison Kingman / MTC
Cottonwood Police Department
Lake Havasu City Police Department
Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office
Phoenix Police Department
Rocky Mountain Information Network
Scottsdale Police Department
Tempe Police Department
Tucson Police Department

ARKANSAS
13th Judicial District Deputy Prosecutors Office
Scott County Sheriff’s Office

CALIFORNIA
Alameda County Sheriff’s Office
Bakersfield Police Department
Bear Valley Police Department
Berkeley Police Department
Baldwin Park School Police Department
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
California Highway Patrol
Chula Vista Police Department
Coachella Valley Gang Task Force
Compton School Police Department
Concord Police Department
Corona Police Department
Delano Community Correctional Facility
Eureka Police Department
Exeter Police Department
Fresno County Sheriff’s Office
Garden Grove Police Department
Gilroy Police Department
Greenfield Police Department
Hollister Police Department
Huntington Beach Police Department
Inglewood Police Department
Kern County Sheriff’s Office
Los Angeles Police Department
Lincoln Police Department
Long Beach Police Department
Los Angeles County District Attorney
Los Angeles County Probation Department
Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department
Marina Police Department
Merced Multi-Agency Gang Task Force
Montebello Police Department
Monterey County Probation Department
Monterey Police Department
Morgan Hill Police Department
Mountain View Police Department
Napa County Probation Department
National City Police Department
Oakland Police Department
Office of the Fresno County District Attorney
Oxnard Police Department
Pacific Grove Police Department
Pittsburg Police Department
Placer County District Attorney’s Office
Riverside County District Attorney’s Office
Riverside Sheriff’s Department
Sacramento County Sheriff’s Department
Sacramento Police Department
San Benito County Probation Department
San Benito County Sheriff’s Office
San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Department
San Diego County Probation Department
San Diego Police Department
San Leandro Police Department
San Luis Obispo County Sheriff’s Department
Sanger Police Department
Santa Ana Police Department
Santa Barbara County Sheriff
Santa Barbara Police Department
Santa Barbara Sheriff’s Department
Santa Clara County Probation Department
Santa Monica Police Department
San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Department
San Diego Sheriff’s Department
Simi Valley Police Department
Sonoma County Sheriff’s Office
South Gate Police Department
Southern Alameda County Major Crime Task Force
Stockton Police Department
Tehachapi Police Department
Tuolumne County Sheriff
Ukiah Police Department
Vallejo Police Department
Ventura Police Department
West Covina Police Department
West Sacramento Police Department
Whittier Police Department

COLORADO
10th Judicial District Probation Department
Aurora Police Department
Colorado Department of Corrections
Garfield County Sheriff’s Office
Greeley Police Department
Mesa County Sheriff’s Office
Thornton Police Department

CONNECTICUT
Connecticut State Police
Danbury Police Department
Meriden Police Department
New Haven Police Department
South Windsor Police Department
West Hartford Police Department

DELAWARE
Delaware State Police
New Castle County Police
Wilmington Police Department

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
US Attorney’s Office
Washington DC Metropolitan Police Department

FLORIDA
Alachua County Sheriff’s Office
Central Florida Intelligence Exchange
Florida Department of Corrections
Florida Department of Law Enforcement
Fort Myers Police Department
Hernando County Sheriff’s Office
Highlands County Sheriff’s Office
Hillsborough County Sheriff
Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office
Lake County Sheriff’s Office
Lee County Sheriff’s Office
Maitland Police Department
Marion County Sheriff’s Office
Martin County Sheriff’s Office
Miami-Dade Corrections & Rehabilitations
Ocala Police Department
Okeechobee County Sheriff’s Office
Orange County Corrections
Orange County Sheriff’s Office
Orlando Police Department
Oviedo Police Department
Polk County Sheriff’s Office
Sanford Police Department
Sarasota Sheriff’s Office
Seminole County Sheriff’s Office
Tallahassee Police Department
Seminole Police Department
Titusville Police Department
Volusia County Sheriff’s Office

GEORGIA
Cobb County Sheriff’s Office
Douglasville Police Department
Georgia Bureau of Investigation
Gwinnett County Police Department
LaGrange Police Department
Richmond County Board of Education Public Safety
Spalding County Sheriff’s Office

ILLINOIS
Bensenville Police Department
Bloomington Police Department
Chicago Police Department
Decatur Police Department
Dolton Police Department
DuPage County State’s Attorney’s Office
Hanover Park Police Department
Illinois Department of Corrections
Jo Daviess County Sheriff’s Office
Lake County Sheriff Department
Schaumburg Police Department

INDIANA
Anderson Police Department
Boone County Sheriff Department
Cumberland Police Department
Elkhart County Sheriff’s Office
Evansville Police Department
Indiana Department of Corrections
Parke County Sheriff’s Office
Pendleton Correctional Facility
Richmond Police Department
Southwest Indiana Violent Crime Task Force

IOWA
Dubuque Police Department
Iowa Department of Corrections
Jasper County Sheriff’s Office
Storm Lake Police Department
Warren County Sheriff’s Office

KANSAS
Kansas Bureau of Investigation
Lawrence Police Department
Topeka Police Department
Wichita Police Department

KENTUCKY
Henderson Police Department
Kentucky Department of Juvenile Justice
Louisville Metro Police Department
McCracken County Regional Jail

LOUISIANA
Alexandria Police Narcotics Division
Creola Police Department
Denham Springs Police Department
Grant Parish Constable
Grant Parish Sheriff’s Office
Iberia Parish Sheriff’s Office
Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office
Louisiana Department of Corrections
Louisiana State Police
Metro Narcotics of Ouachita
New Orleans Police Department
Office of Juvenile Justice

MAINE
Lewiston Police Department

MARYLAND
Anne Arundel County Police Department
Calvert County Sheriff’s Office
Charles County Sheriff’s Office
Greenbelt City Police Department
Hagerstown Department of Police
Harford County Sheriff’s Office
Maryland Coordination and Analysis Center
Maryland Department of Corrections
Montgomery County Police
Prince George’s County Police Department
Wicomico County Department of Corrections

MASSACHUSETTS
Boston Police Department
Chicopee Police Department
Fitchburg Police Department
Hampden County Sheriff’s Department
Haverhill Police Department
Holyoke Police Department
Lowell Police Department
Massachusetts State Police
Springfield Police Department
Worcester Police Department

MICHIGAN
Benton Township Police Department
Berrien County Sheriff’s Department
Escanaba Public Safety Department
Grand Rapids Police Department
Holland Police Department
Muskegon Police Department
Oakland County Violent Gang Task Force
Ottawa County Sheriff’s Office
Unadilla Township Police Department
West Michigan Enforcement Team

MINNESOTA
Dakota County Community Corrections
Minneapolis Police Department
Owatonna Police Department
Prairie Island Tribal Police
Saint Peter Police Department
Shakopee Police Department

MISSISSIPPI
Gulf Coast Regional Fugitive Task Force
Gulfport Police Department
Magee Police Department
Narcotics Task Force of Jackson County
US Attorney’s Office, Southern District of Mississippi

MISSOURI
Berkeley Police Department
Joplin Police Department
Kansas City Missouri Police Department
Missouri Department of Corrections
Monett Police Department
Saint Louis County Police Department
St. Charles Police Department
St. Joseph Missouri Police Department
St. Louis County Police Department
St. Louis Metropolitan Police Department

MONTANA
Crossroads Correctional Center
Laurel Police Department
Missoula Police Department
Montana Department of Corrections

NEBRASKA
Bellevue Police Department
City of Gering Police Department
Columbus Police Department
Crete Police Department
Grand Island Police Department
Kearney Police Department
Omaha Police Department

NEVADA
Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
Washoe County Sheriff’s Office

NEW HAMPSHIRE
Belknap County Sheriff’s Department
Concord Police Department
Keene Police Department
Manchester Police Department
Manchester Weed and Seed Program
Merrimack County Department of Corrections
Nashua Police Department
Somersworth Police Department

NEW JERSEY
Bound Brook Police Department
Essex County Prosecutor’s Office
Kenilworth Police Department
Linden Police Department
Passaic County Sheriff’s Department

NEW MEXICO
Albuquerque Police Department
Catron County Sheriff’s Department
Eddy County Sheriff’s Office
Pueblo of Acoma Police Department

NEW YORK
Dutchess County Sheriff’s Office
Glens Falls Police Department
Nassau County Police Department

NORTH CAROLINA
Duplin County Sheriff’s Office
Durham Police Department
Fayetteville Police Department
Gastonia Police Department
New Hanover County Sheriff
North Carolina Department of Corrections
Shelby Police Department
Wake Forest Police Department

NORTH DAKOTA
Heart of America Correctional and Treatment Center
North Dakota Department of Corrections

OHIO
Akron Police Department
Canton Police Department
Columbus, Ohio Division of Police
Dayton Police Department
Lake Metroparks Ranger Department
Montpelier Police Department
Springfield Ohio Division of Police

OKLAHOMA
Davis Correctional Facility
Eastern Shawnee Tribal Police
North Fork Correctional facility
Oklahoma City Police Department
Oklahoma Department of Corrections
Owasso Police Department

OREGON
Crook County Sheriff’s Office
Portland Police Bureau

PENNSYLVANIA
California University of Pennsylvania Police Department
Cumberland County Prison
Ephrata Police Department
Lackawanna County District Attorney
Lackawanna County Prison
Lancaster County District Attorney
Manheim Borough Police Department
Mifflin County Regional Police Department
Montgomery County Adult Probation & Parole Department
Pennsylvania Capitol Police
Pennsylvania State Police
Philadelphia-Camden HIDTA
Slippery Rock University Police

PUERTO RICO
Metropolitan Detention Center, Guaynabo
Police of Puerto Rico

RHODE ISLAND
Providence Police Department
Rhode Island Department of Corrections

SOUTH CAROLINA
Anderson County Gang Task Force
Bamberg Police Department
Charleston County Sheriff Office
Chester City Police Department
Colleton County Sheriff’s Office
Columbia Police Department
Darlington County Sheriff’s Office
Darlington Police Department
Dorchester County Sheriff’s Office
Florence County Sheriff’s Office
Florence Police Department
Fountain Inn Police Department
Greenwood County Sheriff’s Office
Greenwood Police Department
Greer Police Department
Hampton County Sheriff Office
Hartsville Police Department
Lancaster City Police Department
Lancaster Police Department
Latta Police Department
Lexington Medical Health Services – Public Safety
Palmetto Protection Agency, Inc.
Prosperity Police Department
Rock Hill Police Department
South Carolina Department of Corrections
Spartanburg Public Safety Department
Summerville Police Department
Timmonsville Police Department
West Columbia Police Department

SOUTH DAKOTA
Rapid City Police Department
Tripp County Sheriff’s Office

TENNESSEE
Bradley County Juvenile Detention
Chattanooga Police Department
Coffee County Sheriff’s Department
Columbia Police Department
Cookeville Police Department
Covington Police Department
Fayette County Sheriff’s Department
Franklin Police Department
Hardeman County Correctional Facility
Juvenile Court of Jefferson County
Knoxville Police Department
Metro Nashville Police Department
Oak Ridge Police Department
Rutherford County Sheriff’s Department
Sumner County Sheriff’s Office
Tennessee Bureau of Investigation
Tennessee Department of Correction

TEXAS
Amarillo Police Department
Andrews Department of Public Safety
Austin Police Department
Bastrop County Sheriff’s Office
Baytown Police Department
Bexar County Fire Marshal’s Office
Bosque County Sheriff’s Office
Collin County District Attorney’s Office
Dallas ISD Police & Security
Dallas Police Department Gang Unit
Donna ISD Police Department
El Paso County Sheriff’s Office
Harlingen Police Department
Hays County Juvenile Probation
Hidalgo County Constable – Pct 3
Hidalgo County District Attorney’s Office
Hidalgo County Sheriff’s Office
Hutchinson County Sheriff’s Office
Kenedy County Sheriff Office
Luling Police Department
Maverick County Detention Center
Nacogdoches Police Department
New Caney ISD Police Department
Reagan County Sheriff’s Office
San Antonio Police Department
San Marcos Police Department
Schertz Police Department
Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission
Texas Department of Criminal Justice
Travis County Sheriff’s Office
Texas Department of Public Safety
University of Texas Health Science Center Police

UTAH
West Valley City Police Department

VERMONT
No reporting

VIRGINIA
Abingdon Police Department
Alexandria Police Department
Alexandria Sheriff’s Office
Arlington County Police Department
Bland Correctional Center
Chesapeake Police Department
Chesterfield County Police Department
Chincoteague Police Department
City of Chesapeake Police Department
City of Harrisonburg Police Department
City of Manassas Police Department
Department of Conservation and Recreation
Department of Juvenile Justice
Fairfax County Police Department
Hampton Police Division
Newport News Police Department
Norfolk Police Division
Prince William County Police Department
Richmond Police Department
Staunton Police Department
Suffolk Police Department
Town of Herndon Police Department
Town of Vienna Police Department
Virginia Department of Corrections
Virginia Correctional Center for Women
Virginia Port Authority Police Department
Virginia State Police
Warsaw Probation and Parole Office

WASHINGTON
Everson Police Department
King County Jail
King County Sheriff’s Office
Lynnwood Police Department
Nisqually Indian Tribe
Northwest High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area
Seattle Police Department
Washington State Department of Corrections

WEST VIRGINIA
Eastern Panhandle Potomac Highlands SSTF
Martinsburg Police Department
Philippi Police Department

WISCONSON
Lac Courte Oreilles Tribal Police
Milwaukee Police Department
Wisconsin Department of Corrections

WYOMING
Wyoming Highway Patrol

Endnotes
a Title 18 U.S.C. Section 521(a)(A) defines criminal street gangs as ongoing groups, clubs, organizations, or associations of five or more individuals that have as one of their primary purposes the commission of one or more criminal offenses. Title 18 U.S.C. Section 521(c) further defines such criminal offenses as (1) a federal felony involving a controlled substance; (2) a federal felony crime of violence that has as an element the use or attempted use of physical force against the person of another and (3) a conspiracy to commit an offense described in paragraph (1) or (2).
b
For the purpose of this assessment, OMGs include One Percenter gangs as well as support and puppet clubs.c A juvenile refers to an individual under 18 years of age, although in some states, a juvenile refers to an individual under 16 years of age. A juvenile gang refers to a gang that is primarily comprised of individuals under 18 years of age.d Juggalos are traditionally fans of the musical group the Insane Clown Posse. Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, and Utah are the only US states that recognize Juggalos as a gang.e Alien smuggling involves facilitating the illegal entry of aliens for financial or other tangible benefits. It can involve an individual or a criminal organization. Business relationships typically cease once the individual has reached their destination. Human trafficking involves recruitment, transportation, and harboring of persons through force, fraud, or coercion for labor or services that result in slavery, involuntary servitude, or debt bondage. The business relationship does not end and often becomes exploitative and violent.
f
According to the United Nations, over 90 percent of Mexican migrants illegally entering the United States are assisted by professional smugglers. Although most of the migrants are smuggled in trucks, many have been smuggled by rail, on foot, and tunnels.g For years, gang members used Internet websites to advertise the sale of their victims. However, recently several Internet sites including Craigslist have eliminated their erotic services personal advertisement sections.h MDTOs control up to 80 percent of wholesale cocaine distribution in the United States.
i
Eurasian criminal groups include Albanian, Armenian, Eastern European, and Russian criminal enterprises.
j
Legal mail refers to any correspondence sent to or received from a legal professional. Gang members may disguise their correspondence to resemble legal mail so that it is exempt from inspection.
k
 Gang members leave prison with the knowledge and connections that allow them to identify with a national gang which will garner them greater respect and “street credibility” within their community.l According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the number of Native Americans incarcerated in jails and prisons nationwide increased by approximately 2.5 percent from 2007 to 2008. 
m
US military branches include Army, Air Force, Coast Guard, Marines, Navy, Army Reserves, and National Guard.
n
The US Southwest Border includes the southern borders of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.
o
Although some US and local law enforcement officials maintain that violent crime in Southwest Border states has decreased in the past few years, the effects of such violence, including drug trafficking activity and migration patterns of Mexican citizens fleeing the violence in Northern Mexico, are most acutely reflected in the US Southwest Border Region. Furthermore, as the point of entry for the vast majority of illicit drugs that are smuggled into the United States, the Southwest Border Region is most susceptible to any spillover violence.p The Barrio Azteca works for the Juarez Cartel on both the US and Mexican sides of the border.
q
These estimates were derived from the large number of gang members populating social networking Web sites such as the Hoodup.com, Facebook, and MySpace.

 1 US Department of Justice (USDOJ); “Highlights of the 2009 National Youth Gang Survey;” Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; National Gang Center; May 2011.
2
Open Source News Release; “11 Alleged MS-13 Members Indicted on Racketeering and Other Charges in a Series of Violent Crimes; ICE; 4 May 2011. Open Source Article; “Officials Concerned About Gang Violence in Prince George’s County;” Washington Examiner; available at www.washingtonexaminer.com. 3 USDOJ; “Federal Racketeering Indictment Leads to Arrest of 8 Members, Associates of San Gabriel Valley Street Gang;” Press Release; 8 June 2010; available at www.justice.gov/usao/cac/pressroom/pr/2010/091.html. 4 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.5 NAGIA Quick Guide to Gangs, National Alliance of Gang Investigators Association; April 2010.6 Open Source News Article; “Tips for dealing with Asian Gangs;” Police One; 21 May 2009; available at www.Policeone.com.7 USDOJ; National Drug Threat Assessment 2010; NDIC; February 2010. Open Source News Article, “Pot houses linked to gangs, marijuana dispensaries;” Whittier Daily News; 6 September 2010; available at www.Whittierdailynews.com. Open Source News Article, “Asian Pot Ring Busted, Noted Restaurateur Suspect;” CBS4 Denver; 7 March 2010; available at www.CBS4denver.com.8 Open Source News Article; “Somali Gangs Ran Sex Ring in 3 US States, Authorities Say;” Fox News; 8 November 2010; available at www.foxnews.com. 9 Online news article; “Judge sets $2 million bond in alleged murder, robbery;” Ohio Post; 15 April 2009.10 FBI Indianapolis Division; “Twenty-Two Charged Federally in Evansville Drug Trafficking Case;” Press Release; 4 February 2010; available at http://indianapolis.fbi.gov/dojpressrel/pressrel10/ip020410.htm.11 NAGIA Quick Guide to Gangs; National Alliance of Gang Investigators Association; April 2010.12 Open Source News Article; “Hybrid Gangs responsible for rise in North Las Vegas Crime,” 13 Action News Las Vegas; 25 July 2010; available at http://www.ktnv.com/Global/story.asp;13. 13 Open Source News Article; “Man charged with shooting couple on Maple Valley Trail”; The Seattle Times; 3January 2011; available at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/theblotter/2013837934_man_charged_with_xx_in_connect.html. 14 Open Source News Article; “Teen gets probation in attacks on homeless;” Gazette-Times; 22 January 2010; available at http://www.gazettetime.com/news/local/article_3b43539a-07ab-11df-b6ae-001cc4c03286.html. 15 US Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE); “8 Arrested as ICE Dismantles Alien Smuggling Ring Linked to Notorious Local Street Gang;” News Release; 14 October 2009; available at www.ice.gov/news/releases/0910/091014losangeles.htm. 16 Open Source Website; Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC) Charter and Amendments; available at www.state.gov/m/ds/hstcenter/41444.htm.17 DHS; “29 Charged with Sex Trafficking Juveniles;” ICE; News Release; 8 November 2010; available at www.ice.gov/news/releases/1011/101108nashville.htm. 18 Open News Source Article; “Report Links Street Gangs to Child Prostitution;” KPBS News; 23 November 2010; available at www.kpbs.org/news/2010/nov/09/report-links-street-gangs-child-prostitution. 19 Open Source News Article; Kevin Johnson; USA Today; “Drug Cartels Unite Rival Gangs to Work for Common Bad;” USA Today; 16 March 2010.20 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.21 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.22 Open Source News Article; “Drug Cartels Uniting Rival Gangs;” USA Today; 3 March 2010; available at www.usatoday.com. 23 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.24 Open Source News Article; “US Mexico Drug Gangs Form Alliances;” Washington Times; 26 March 2010; available at www.washingtimes.com. 25 Open Source News Article; Kevin Johnson; “Drug Cartels Unite Rival Gangs to Work for Common Bad;” USA Today; 16 March 2010; available at www.usatoday.com.26 Open Source News Article; “US Mexico Drug Gangs Form Alliances;” Washington Times; 26 March 2010; available at www.washingtontimes.com. 27 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010. Open Source News Article; “US Mexico Drug Gangs Form Alliances;” Washington Times; 26 March 2010; available at www.washingtontimes.com.28 Open Source News Article; “La Familia’ North of the Border;” STRATFOR Global Intelligence; 3 December 2009; available at http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20091203_la_familia_north_border.29 Open Source News Article; “New Jersey Authorities Indict 34 Lucchese Crime Family Bust from ‘Operation Heat’;” New Jersey.com; 14 May 2010. 30 Open Source News Article; “Authorities crack down on transnational Armenian Power crime group;” CNN; 17 February 2011; available at www.cnn.com. 31 Open Source News Article; “N.J. Inmate’s Ordered Killing Shows Danger of Cell Phones in Prison,” http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/06/nj_state_prison_inmate_is_char.html; June 11, 2010; Online News Article; “Prosecutor: Trenton prison inmate Anthony Kidd used cell phone to order murder of girlfriend Kendra Degrasse,” http://www.trentonian.com/articles/2010/06/11/news/doc4c11432d64621687151693.txt; June 12, 201032 Open Source News Article; “Prisoner Ordered Hit Outside of Prison With Smuggle Cell Phone;” 13 September 2010; available at http://newsone.com/nation/associatedpress4/prisoner-ordered-hit-outside-of-prison-with-smuggled-cell-phone/.33 Open Source News Article; “Parole Worker Leaked Information to Gang Member;” Fox News New York; 1 November 2010; available at www.myfoxny.com. 34 Open Source News Article; “Former Deputy Headed for Prison;” PE.com; 30 July 2010; available at www.pe.com. 35 Open Source News Article; “Ex-Cop, James Formato, Pleads Guilty in Mob Case;” CBS News Chicago; 25 April 2010; available at www.thechicagosyndicate.com/2010/04/ex-cop-james-formato-pleads-guilty-in.html.36 Online publication; Bureau of Justice Statistics; Jails in Indian Country, 2008; December 2009; available at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj/index.cfm?ty=pbdetails&iid=1748.37 Open Source News Article; “Mexican Pot Gangs Infiltrate Indian Reservations in U.S;” The Wall Street Journal; 5 November 2009; available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125736987377028727.html.38 Open Source News Article; “Crunching Numbers in Mexico’s Drug Conflict;” BBC News; 14 January 2011; available at www.bbc.com. 39 Stratfor Global Intelligence Center; “Mexican Drug Wars: Bloodiest Year to Date;” 20 December 2010.40 Open Source News Article; “Napolitano: Border security better than ever;” CBS News; 25 March 2011; http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20047102-503544.html.41 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.42 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.43 Open Source News Article; “Barrio Azteca threat targets law officers;” El Paso Times; 25 March 2010; available at www.elpasotimes.com/ci_14753458. 44 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.45 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.46 USDOJ; “National Drug Threat Assessment 2010;” National Drug Intelligence Center; February 2010.47 Press Release; “Former Marines Arrested on Weapons Charges;” USDOJ; ATF; 8 November 2010.48 Press Release; “Three men, US Navy Seal, Arrested for Unlawfully Trafficking in Machine Guns;” US DOJ; ATF; 4 November 2010.49 Open Source News Article; MSNBC.com, “California Gang Officers Again Targeted by Booby-Trap,”1 March 2010; available at www.msnbc.com. 50 Investigative Consultants; email correspondence; 29 November 2010.51 Investigative Consultants; email correspondence; 29 November 2010. Superior Court of the State of California, County of Los Angeles, Central District; First Amended Complaint for Injunction and Civil Penalties; 15 March 2010.52 Open Source News Article; “Seeing Green;” Baltimore City Paper; 11 August 2010; available at www.citypaper.com. 53 Open Source News Article; “Two Dozen Charged in Alleged Gang-led Mortgage Fraud;” Reuters News; 7 April 2009; available at www.reuters.com. 54 Open Source News Article; “Border Crime Sweep Nets Drugs, 246 Arrests;” Sign On San Diego; 28 March 2011; available at www.signonsandiego.com. 55 FBI; “Violent Border Gang Indicted; Members Charged in Consulate Murders;” News Release; 9 March 2011; available at www.fbi.gov. 56 FBI; “Forty-One Gang Members and Associates in Five Districts Charged with Crimes Including Racketeering, Murder, Drug Trafficking, and Firearms Trafficking;” News Release; 9 February 2011; available at www.fbi.gov.